The Learning Network uses a gender and anti-oppression analysis to understand violence against women. Often referred to as intersectionality, this perspective recognizes the unique experiences of women and the differences within communities, and explains how multiple forces work together and interact to reinforce conditions of inequality and social exclusion, the roots of violence.

This foundational area of the Learning Network contains resources to further understanding of intersectionality and to promote application of a gender and anti-oppression analysis to VAW research, resource development, training and public education, and services.

To position these resources, we are grateful to CRIAW/ICREF for permission to reproduce their intersectionality wheel diagram in Everyone Belongs. A Toolkit for Applying Intersectionality by Joanna Simpson, June 2009.

Intersectionality Wheel Infographic

A Best Practices Guide to Intersectional Approaches in Psychological Research
This 2008 article discusses the practical application of intersectionality in empirical research, using psychology as an example. It outlines how to decide which intersections of identities to use, comparing identities, and understanding identity within a social structural context. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Aboriginal Women in Canada: Gender, Socio-Economic Determinants of Health, and Initiatives to Close the Wellness Gap
This paper explores the historical and socio-economic context that has profoundly impacted the health and well-being of Aboriginal women in Canada.  The influence of gender on the health of women generally, and Aboriginal specifically, in Canada is examined with an overview of some of the health disparities between First Nations, Inuit and Métis women compared to non-Aboriginal women and the barriers that Aboriginal women must overcome to address these disparities.  The paper provides some promising examples of legal, policy and program initiatives that address these health concerns.

Addressing the Determinants of Child Mental Health: Intersectionality as a Guide to Primary Health Care Renewal
This 2010 article uses an intersectional lens to examine the complex interrelationships among the factors affecting child mental health and the associated policy challenges surrounding primary health care renewal. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009
The Department of Justice Canada put out a report that outlines the estimated economic impact of spousal violence that occurred in Canada in 2009.  Using information from the police-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey 2 and the self-reported 2009 General Social Survey, the report estimates that the total economic impact of spousal violence in 2009 was $7.4 billion which amounts to $220 per Canadian.  The report provides an account of the costs for the criminal and civil justice systems and an analysis of the direct economic impact for primary victims (e.g., medical attention, lost wages, legal costs, mental health issues).

An Intersectional Approach to Discrimination: Addressing Multiple Grounds in Human Rights Claims
This 2001 discussion paper authored by the Ontario Human Rights Commission introduces an intersectional approach to human rights claims using examples of Charter cases brought before the Supreme Court of Canada. The application of intersectionality to discrimination is also discussed.

An Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis Framework
This 2014 guide examines why intersectionality matters for health policy analysis and outlines a framework for intersectionality-based policy analysis. Several policy case studies are considered.

Application of Intersectional Analysis to Data on Domestic Violence against Aboriginal Women Living in Remote Communities in the Province of Quebec
This 2015 article discusses the theoretical and analytical intersectionality approach, focusing on its application to an analysis of empirical data obtained from qualitative research into domestic violence against Aboriginal women living in four remote communities in Quebec. Findings reveal the existence of different domination systems, as well as oppressive actions that interlock and interact at multiple and shifting levels, all of which shape and contribute to the reproduction of domestic violence among women living in remote Aboriginal communities. The intersectionality approach highlights the important role played not only by race, gender, and social class, but also by the historical context and the degree of geographic isolation in the domestic violence experienced by Aboriginal women living in remote communities. All these social systems increase the vulnerability of Aboriginal women to domestic violence. This paper is one of the few scholarly attempts made so far to apply intersectional analysis to empirical data on the phenomenon of domestic violence as experienced by Aboriginal women.

Attributing Selected Costs to Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of Women Who Have Left Abusive Partners: A Social Determinants of Health Approach
This study examined costs associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) for a sample of 309 Canadian women who left an abusive male partner.  Examining selected public- and private-sector expenditures attributable to violence, the total annual estimated costs of IPV per woman was $13,162.39 translating to a national annual cost of $6.9 billion for women aged 19-65 who have left abusive partners.  Results indicated that costs of IPV continue long after the woman has left the abusive partner.  A paper called for recognition in policy that leaving an abusive relationship does not coincide with ending violence.

Being Undocumented & Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): Multiple Vulnerabilities Through the Lens of Feminist Intersectionality
This 2012 article discusses how gender, ethnicity, and legal status intersect to shape undocumented women’s vulnerability to intimate partner violence, negative health effects, and barriers to seeking help. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Children’s Rights, Social Justice and Social Identities in Scotland: Intersections in Research, Policy and Practice.
This 2014 Knowledge Exchange Report summarizes a seminar series conducted at the University of Edinburgh and making the connection between intersectionality and childhood inequalities. The aim of this series was to put children and young people’s inequalities on the agenda in research, policy, and practice.

Closing Canada’s Gender Gap – Year 2240 Here We Come!
This 2013 paper from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives looks at Canada’s overall gender gap score and examines the different categories that are measured (i.e., health, education, economic and political empowerment).  Specifically, Canada is falling short in both economic and political empowerment when it comes to gender equality.  This paper attempts to explain the gender gaps in these two categories and provide potential solutions.

Considerations on Mainstreaming Intersectionality
This 2011 article identifies five key considerations for adopting and mainstreaming intersectionality: the language and concepts that are used; the complexities of difference and how to navigate this complexity; the choice of focusing on identities, categories, processes, and/or systems; the model that is used to explain and describe mutually constituted differences; and the principles that determine which interactions are analyzed. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Cultural Competence in Evaluation
This chapter provides an overview of cultural competence and context in evaluation.  The chapter discusses the cultural contexts of policymaking, program development, and service delivery including culture in problem definition and program theory; culture in policy discourse and decisions; and cultural competence in policy and program development.  The chapter also constructs a definition of cultural competence in evaluation, including methodological and ethical considerations.

Culturally Competent Evaluation for Aboriginal Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature
This paper reviews the evolution of cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities.  The paper defines culturally competent evaluation including the benefits to such practices and the relevant findings; describes culturally relevant and effective methodological practices in Aboriginal communities; and identifies gaps that need to be addressed.

Domestic Violence Among the Black Poor: Intersectionality and Social Justice
This article improves domestic violence theory by: 1) using the language of Intersectionality; 2) developing a multidisciplinary ecological model of Intersectionality (gender, race, and class) to research domestic violence among Black communities in the lower income bracket; and 3) outlining the implications for counsellors.  This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Domestic Violence at the Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender
This research article provides a comprehensive review of the domestic violence literature that includes the race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional perspective and the social structural perspective fostered by women of colour and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in the U.S.  The article discusses the challenges of these approaches (intersectional and structural) to the traditional feminist framework of domestic violence and the contributions provided.

E-Newsletter Issue 10: Gender Equality
In Issue 10 of the Learning Network Newsletter, the team focuses on Gender Equality.  We provide a definition of Gender Equality and discuss why it is important and its inextricable link to violence against women.  Through brief text and graphics, we illustrate the existing gender gaps in Canada in women’s political participation, in women’s health and well-being due to the disproportionate levels of intimate partner and sexual violence they experience, and in women’s economic well-being. The role of economic instability or dependence in keeping women in abusive relationships is discussed.  We also examine the greater gaps in equality experienced by women belonging to communities affected by historical disadvantages, discrimination, and systemic barriers. Actions that parents, educators, and employees/employers can take to promote gender equality are included. Hyperlinks to 26 online resources used in the development of this newsletter are provided.

E-Newsletter Issue 9: May 2014. Sexual Violence Awareness
This Learning Network newsletter is on sexual violence. It positions sexual violence within the broader context of violence against women, defines what is meant by sexual violence, rape culture, and drug facilitated sexual assault.  Readers are encouraged to read statistics on sexual violence through an intersectional lens. Five courageous survivors share their experience (4 on video tape and 1 through a letter), illuminating different ways women are impacted by and cope with sexual violation. Be sure to check out the Learning Network Briefs and other online resources on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence, promising responses to victims/survivors, training and education campaigns, and prevention initiatives.

Engaging Men from Diverse Backgrounds in Preventing Men’s Violence Against Women
This 2013 article provides an intersectional analysis of men and masculinities and discusses an intersectional approach to men’s violence against women.

Equity and Diversity Audit Tool
This audit tool was developed by the Equity, Diversity and Gender (EDG) committee of the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC) to assist medical schools and their departments or divisions to better understand working environments and climate, and to plan for needed adjustments.  The tool is used to assess how well an individual department or unit is doing to promote diversity and equity; provide an opportunity to reflect on areas in need of improvement; garner support for any improvements needed; and develop an action plan and timeline for improvement.  The tool is used to assess specific dimensions of equity and diversity primarily at the department level in the following areas: strategic planning; policies and procedures; committee representation; admission and selection of learners; support programs and services for learners; curriculum development, assessment and program evaluation; faculty recruitment, promotion, career development and retention; staff recruitment, promotion, career development; and communication and community relations.

Everyone Belongs – A Toolkit for Applying Intersectionality
This toolkit was developed by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW), in partnership with the Social Planning Council of Winnipeg, the Social Planning Council of Ottawa, and the Saskatchewan Intercultural Association, with the intent to help non-profit groups apply an intersectional approach into their existing work including policies, services and programs, research and community education. The toolkit provides concrete and practical suggestions and tools, as well as the history and philosophy regarding intersectionality.

From Difference to Intersectionality: Challenges and Resources.
This 2006 article applies intersectionality to questions of service design and delivery, and reveals the ways in which intersectionality is a promising starting point for critical thinking and practice. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Gay men and intimate partner violence: A gender analysis
This 2014 article examines intersections of sexuality and gender in gay men’s experiences of intimate partner violence.

Gender Audit Guidelines for the Government, Community, and Health Sectors
This 2016 resource was developed by Women’s Health West (Australia) to assist Preventing Violence Together partners to set gender equity assessment standards within their organization and the facilities, programs and services that they deliver to the broader community. The tool is an introduction to gender audits and provides examples of resources to assist organisations to explore this process – it includes establishing the scope and focus of the gender audit the organisation wants to undertake.

Gender: An Intersectionality Perspective
This 2008 article focuses on intersectionality in empirical research on gender. It offers “best practices” for incorporating intersectionality into empirical research and demonstrates the importance of intersectionality for researchers interested in social change. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+)
GBA+ is used to assess the varying impacts of policies, programs or initiatives on women and men and girls and boys while also taking into account factors such as age, education, language, geography, culture, sexual orientation, ability, ethnicity, and income. GBA+ helps all public servants incorporate gender and other aspects of diversity into their work by asking how diverse groups of women and men may be impacted by certain polices or initiatives and ensuring that measures are in place to address any inequalities.  The Departmental Action Plan on Gender-Based Analysis+ outlines two main areas of action for government departments including 1) implementing a GBS+ framework and 2) routinely applying GBA+ to programs, policies and legislation.  This report outlines the six important elements of a GBA+ Framework: 1) departmental statement of intent; 2) a centre of responsibility to monitor implementation of the framework and the practice of GBA+; 3) mandatory GBA+ training for all senior departmental officials, analysts and other appropriate staff; 4) guides, manuals or other appropriate tools for promoting GBA+; 5) reporting on progress in departmental reports on plans and priorities and performance reports; and 6) annual self-assessment on the implementation of frameworks and the application of GBA+ in specific initiatives.  Status of Women Canada has provided an introductory course (Introduction to Gender-based Analysis Plus) that provides information, tools, and resources on GBA+.

Gender Equality
This chapter, from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, describes the continued gender gaps in Canada in women’s work, women’s wages, and the costs of violence against women.  The chapter outlines the actions of the Alternative Federal Budget to address the issue of gender inequality in Canada which include investing in a national action plan to address violence against women; increase funding for Status of Women Canada and restore its mandate to fund women’s groups to conduct independent policy research and advocacy; invest in social infrastructure; increase women’s access to jobs in growth sectors; provide adequate and accessible income supports and improve the earnings and working conditions of those in the low-wage workforce; proactively ensure equal pay for work of equal value by repealing the Public Service Equitable Compensation Act; and eliminate tax policies that exacerbate women’s economic insecurity and reduce women’s labour force participation.

Gender Equality Policy and Tools
This report outlines the Canadian International Development Agency’s policy on gender equality.  The objectives of the policy are: to advance women’s equal participation with men as decision makers; to support women and girls in the realization of their full human rights; and to reduce gender inequalities in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development.  This report outlines the principles of the policy; gender analysis as a tool; good practices to promote gender equality; and gender analysis guidelines.

Gender Evaluation Methodology for Internet and ICTs: A Learning Tool for Change and Empowerment (GEM)
In 2001, the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) began to develop the Gender Evaluation Methodology for Internet and ICTs (GEM) after attempting to understand the impact of women’s networking and advocacy on gender and ICT issues.  GEM provides a systematic method to evaluate whether ICTs are improving women’s lives and gender-power relations and helps integrate a gender analysis into the planning and/or evaluations of any ICT social change initiative.  There are three phases to applying the GEM tool.  The first phase involves integrating a gender analysis or focus on gender equality and women’s empowerment in planning an evaluation of information communication technology (ICT) initiatives.  This phase includes defining the intended use of the evaluation, identifying the stakeholders, identifying gender and ICT issues, finalizing evaluation questions, and setting gender and ICT indicators (e.g., the level of women’s participation in the project; whether women’s participation in the ICT initiative changed their position).  Phase two of GEM involves gathering information using gender and ICT indicators.  Specifically, the overall objective of this phase is to design and carry out an information gathering strategy that takes account of gender considerations and to analyze the data from a gender perspective.  The final phase of GEM includes figuring out how to act on the results garnered from the evaluation including forming recommendations (e.g., instituting a gender policy; provide gender training) that will strengthen gender equality practices in the specific initiative but also within the organization.  APC provides a manual that outlines their Learning for Change framework; gender analysis including the importance of focusing on gender issues in ICT initiatives and some of the major debates and critiques of ICT to highlight important issues of concern for women; a basic understanding of gender and ICT issues in the overall context of ICTs for development; the Gender Evaluation Methodology for Internet and ICTs tool (GEM).  This manual is available for download in English, Español, Français, Português, and Arabic.

Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: 2. The Work of Legislators
This paper discusses how men and women in parliament can use their roles as legislators to contribute to gender equality in their societies.  Some suggestions include implementing gender equality laws that include gender provisions to encourage societal evolution, redress past discriminations, eliminate existing discriminations and promote principles of gender equality throughout society; apply a gender-based analysis to legislation to highlight the different impacts the legislation has on both women and men, and assessing how  legislation can be amended in order for it to contribute to the overarching goal of gender equality (see to learn about Canada’s Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) tool); and providing gender-sensitive budgeting that considers the different roles, capabilities and needs of women and men and recognizes the differing effects of government spending initiatives.

Getting Out and Staying Out: Issues Surrounding a Woman’s Ability to Remain Out of an Abusive Relationship
This study examines the issues that surround a woman’s ability to leave and remain out of an abusive relationship and the influence nurses have on women both during and after the separating process.  The results of the study indicate that there is an ongoing need to advocate and assist women leaving and remaining out of an abusive relationship and system-wide policies, such as universal screening, need to be introduced in order to help nurses care for women who are experiencing violence.

Global Gender Gap Report 2013
The Global Gender Gap Index was first introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006.  The Index captures the magnitude and scope of gender-based disparities in the world and tracks their progress.  Gender-based disparities are measured by examining economic, political, education and health criteria and countries are provided a ranking that allows for comparisons across regions and income groups over time.  Part 1 of this report outlines the criteria used when employing the Global Gender Gap Index and the methods used to calculate it; Part 2 of the report presents the 2013 rankings, global patterns and regional performances of countries; Part 3 provides an overview of the links between gender gaps and the economic performance of countries; and Part 4 includes information on the trends revealed by the Index in the last eight years.  Overall, Canada ranked 20 out of 136 countries in 2013.

Health Disparities and Violence Against Women: Why and How Cultural and Societal Influences Matter
This 2007 article identifies the cultural factors and societal influences affecting health and health disparities among women survivors of intimate partner violence. Implications for research and practice are  discussed, including greater collaboration, considerations for stronger assessment tools, and required cultural competence. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Health Inequalities and Intersectionality
This briefing note briefly explains intersectionality and explores the potential of an intersectional approach to reducing health inequalities. Three Canadian Approaches using intersectionality to reduce inequality at the policy level are discussed.

IIRP – Institute for Intersectionality Research and Policy
The Institute for Intersectionality, Research and Policy (IIRP) was first launched in 2005 at Simon Fraser University.  IIRP is comprised of an interdisciplinary community of nationally and internationally recognized researchers, scholars, activists, and practitioners who are on the cutting edge of advancing the theory and practical applications of Intersectionality in research, policy, and practice.

Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: Challenges and the potential to advance health equity
This 2014 article identifies and expands up challenges to the incorporation of intersectionality into population health research .These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. The article argues that addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers’ ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation of intersectionality can promote the creation of evidence that is directly useful in population-level interventions such as policy changes, or that is specific enough to be applicable within the social contexts of affected communities.

Intergenerational Violence: The Post-Migration Context in Canada
This 2015 working paper from the Ryerson Centre for Immigration & Settlement is a review of the literature on intergenerational violence; specifically on child abuse, conflicts between adolescents/youth and their parents, and elder abuse. Each of these areas are explored using an intersectionality approach as the authors present definitions of violence, risk and protective factors, and barriers to help-seeking. The analysis reveals that gender and gendered manifestations of violence intersect with ageism, racism, sexism, and other factors requiring a complex understanding as well as nuanced solutions to addressing intergenerational violence in the post-migration context. The review also demonstrates a need for further research into the possible role of immigration stress in intergenerational violence and into the cultural and structural factors that may mitigate its effects.

Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women
This resource document from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) looks at intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV in Women. The document outlines studies that examine the incidence and prevalence of IPV and HIV among women; the links between IPV and HIV; the relationship between violence and the timing of becoming infected with HIV or disclosing HIV status; and women with a history of abuse and HIV or risk for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The CDC focuses on three areas to prevent IPV before it happens and prevent new HIV infections: 1) understanding the problems; 2) identifying effective interventions; and 3) ensuring that states and communities have the capacity and resources to implement prevention strategies.

Intersectional Feminist Frameworks: An Emerging Vision
This 2006 report published by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women discusses the importance of intersectionality internationally and in Canada, and offers suggestions for how intersectional feminist frameworks can be used by women’s and social justice organizations.

Intersectional Research Database
The Intersectional Research Database was launched by the Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity at the University of Maryland. It is a searchable annotated catalog of scholarly publications on the intersections of race, class, gender, and other dimensions of inequality. The database contains scholarship across a wide range of disciplines and methodological approaches. Categories of research include health/mental health/well-being; work/labor; theorizing intersectionality; sexuality; criminal justice; education; violence and power; family; LGBTQ; disability; racial/ethnic stratification; immigration; religion/spirituality; and welfare/poverty.

Intersectionality 101
This 2014 primer explores the key elements of intersectionality and explains how intersectionality differs from other approaches to equity. The article also highlights how intersectionality can be applied in research, policy, practice, and teaching. The value of intersectionality for understanding social problems is discussed.

Intersectionality: A Tool for Gender and Economic Justice
This report explains intersectionality and its critical role in work for human rights and development.  The report provides some suggestions on how gender equality advocates can use this analysis tool.

Intersectionality: Moving Women’s Health Research and Policy Forward
This 2009 primer published by the Women’s Health Research Network includes an overview of intersectionality, including the challenges and advantages of utilizing this approach; a comparison of an intersectional approach with other approaches to health; a discussion of the need for an intersectional approach in women’s health research; a discussion of how to integrate an intersectional approach into health research; a discussion of how to integrate an intersectional approach into health policy-making; and examples of the application of an intersectional framework to three health issues.

Intersectonality: Multiple Inequalities in Social Theory
This 2012 article reviews key questions in the intersectionality debates as well as the central tennets of intersectionality.

Intersectionality and Multiple Inequalities: Visibility in British Policy on Violence Against Women
This 2013 article analyzes the visibility of multiple intersecting inequalities in policy on violence against women in Britain. It finds variations in the extent and type of visibility between different fields of violence against women and concludes with the implications of intersectionality for policy. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Intersectionality and Public Policy: Some Lessons from Existing Models
This 2011 article describes intersectionality and the promises and challenges of such an approach for public policy. Three innovate approaches to applying intersectionality to policy development and analysis are described and evaluated. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Intersectionality and the Determinants of Health: A Canadian Perspective
This 2008 article explores how intersectionality can be used to better understand and respond to causes of illness and disease in a Canadian context. Intersectionality is framed as a “transformative paradigm” for health determinants. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase. 

Intersectionality as buzzword: A sociology of science perspective on what makes a feminist theory successful
This 2008 article written by Kathy Davis discusses the concept of intersectionality and evaluates its theoretical strengths and weakenesses.

Intersectionality-informed Mixed Methods Research: A Primer
This 2014 primer, published by the Institute for Intersectionality Research and Policy, serves as a guide to conducting intersectionality-informed mixed methods research. Aspects of study design, weighting, mixing data, theorizing, data collection, and analysis and interpretation are discussed and applied in a case example.

Intersectionality-informed Qualitative Research: A Primer
This 2014 primer, published by the Institute for Intersectionality Research and Policy, serves as a guide to conducting intersectionality-informed qualitative research. It uses a variety of case examples to illustrate how to frame research intersectionally, approaches to data collection and measurement, and analyzing and interpreting data.

Intersectionality-informed Quantitative Research: A Primer
This 2014 primer, published by the Institute for Intersectionality Research and Policy, serves as a guide to conducting intersectionality-informed quantitative research. It distinguishes between additive and multiplicative approaches and explains how to apply intersectionality in the following stages: defining the research question, research design, and data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

Intersectionality, Power, and Relational Safety in Context: Key Concepts in Clinical Supervision
This 2010 paper identifies opportunities, challenges, and dilemmas encountered when engaging with students and colleagues in examining dimensions of privilege and oppression in supervision-of-supervision and supervision of clinical work conducted by clinicians in training.

Intersectionality of Identity in Children: A Case Study
This 2012 article explores the application of intersectionality to psychological services for children. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Intersections of Immigration and Domestic Violence: Voices of Battered Immigrant Women
This 2008 article analyzes the relationship between immigration and intimate partner violence within an intersectional framework. Data are drawn from interviews with 137 immigrant women in the United States. Findings reveal impacts of identity on women’s understanding of violence, access to resources, and responses to violence. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

It Shouldn’t Be This Hard: A Gender-Based Analysis of Family Law, Family Court, and Violence against Women
This 2012 paper published by Luke’s Place Support & Resource Centre for Women & Children examines Ontario family law and the family court system through a gendered intersectional lens. It provides a gender-based intersectional analysis of the implications of family law and the family court system for women who have experienced violence and their children.

Leading at the Intersections: An Introduction to the Intersectional Approach Model for Policy & Social Change
This 2010 report outlines a model for policy and social change based on intersectionality. Forms of intersectionality (e.g. structural, political, institutional) are discussed along with application of the model to violence against women.

Learning Network's 2014 adaptation of the CRIAW/ICREF's Intersectionality Wheel Diagram
This Intersectionality Wheel Diagram demonstrates the unique circumstances, aspects of identity, types of discrimination impacting identity, larger forces and structures reinforcing exclusion.

Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color
This 1993 article written by Kimberle Crenshaw is where discussion of intersectionality and gender-based violence first began. Crenshaw outlines an intersectional framework for understanding violence, and how women’s intersecting identities influences their experiences of victimization.

Marginalized Identities, Discrimination Burden, and Mental Health: Empirical Exploration of an Interpersonal-Level Approach to Modeling Intersectionality
This 2012 article extends quantitative methodological efforts by modeling intersectionality across three levels: structural, contextual, and interpersonal, consistent with a social-ecological framework. This study’s results point to instrument development ideas to improve the statistical modeling of intersectionality in health and social science research.

Marshalling the Evidence: Using Intersectionality in the Domestic Violence Frame
This article highlights the successes that the movement against domestic violence has achieved in challenging intimate partner violence, as well as providing services for survivors of violence. The authors emphasize how the movement has developed the message that domestic violence is common and that it impacts all women, which is becoming widely received. However, in this article the authors address a gap in the current framing of domestic violence, specifically the lack of consideration toward intersectionality.

Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview
In 2013, the RCMP initiated a study of reported incidents of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls across all police jurisdictions in Canada.  Results from the report revealed a total of 1,181 police-recorded incidents of Aboriginal female homicides (1,017) and unresolved missing Aboriginal females (164) and 225 unsolved cases of either missing or murdered Aboriginal females in Canada.  There were similarities within the homicide cases such as most were committed by men and most of the victims knew the perpetrator.  The report concludes that the total number of murdered and missing Aboriginal women and girls far exceeds previous public estimates.  The RCMP intends to work with the originating agencies responsible for the data to release as much as possible to stakeholders and to make information more widely available. 

Ontario’s Gender Gap: Women and Jobs Post-Recession
This 2014 report from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives looks at women’s economic participation in Ontario post-recession.  The report examines the evident gender gap with full-time and part-time work, wages, and poverty for single mothers and women with children, older women, Aboriginal women, immigrant women, and visible minority women.  The report discusses the need for a recovery strategy that creates jobs and lefts women out of economic insecurity.

People of Color with Disabilities: Intersectionality as a Framework for Analyzing Intimate Partner Violence in Social, Historical, and Political Contexts
This 2008 article uses two case examples to demonstrate how the complex intersection of race, gender, accent, immigration status, sexual orientation, disability, and socioeconomic status shapes women’s help-seeking decisions. The authors also describe programs that take intersectionality into consideration and discuss implications of intersectionality for various stakeholders. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Practicing Intersectionality in Sociological Research: A Critical Analysis of Inclusions, Interactions, and Institutions in the Study of Inequalities
This 2010 article examines what it means to take practice intersectionality as a theoretical and methodological approach to inequality. Three styles of understanding intersectionality in practice – group-centred, process-centred, and system-centred – are discussed. Using recent research examples, the article draws attention to the complexity of integrating intersectionality in all phases of the research process. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Promoting Gender Equality – Frequently Asked Questions about Gender
The United Nations provided answers to frequently asked questions about gender.  Specifically, the document answers what the term ‘gender’ means; the difference between ‘gender equity’, ‘gender equality’, and ‘women’s empowerment’; why gender is important to consider when designing and implementing programs; what is ‘gender mainstreaming’; why ‘gender equality’ is important; and whether or not ‘gender equality’ is a concern for men.

Promoting Gender Equality – From Theory to Practice
This training kit was developed by the Comité québécois femmes et développement and the Association québécoise des organisms de coopération international for international cooperation organizations.  The training kit is split into two parts (theory and practice) with five modules: module 1 – gender equality in perspective; module 2 – gender mainstreaming; module 3 – integrating gender equality into projects and programs; module 4 – assisting and advising partners; and module 5 – practical tools and methodology.

  • Module 1 of the kit provides a perspective on gender equality that includes the progress made on women’s rights across the globe and the status of women in Canada.  A conceptual framework on gender equality is provided and outlines three main approaches to gender equality in development: 1) women in development (WID) which views women’s absence from development projects, policies as the greatest barrier to their equality; 2) gender and development (GAD) which focuses particularly on gender inequalities; and 3) a human rights-based approach which focuses on human rights as they pertain to development.  Other complementary gender equality approaches discussed are gender mainstreaming; Intersectionality; social inclusion/exclusion; and anti-oppression.  Finally, Module 1 outlines the importance of men’s participation in efforts to achieve gender equality.

  • Module 2 of the training kit examines gender mainstreaming and the steps an organization can take to mainstream a gender perspective throughout its structures, policies, and processes.  The module highlights the main tools used in gender mainstreaming: the gender needs assessment; the gender audit; the gender policy; and the gender equality action plan.

  • Module 3 discusses how to identify a project’s target group, conduct a gender analysis, and form a gender strategy that addresses gender inequalities in a program and/or project.  Specifically, the module outlines how gender can be integrated at the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation phases of a program/project.  Module 3 also highlights gender-responsive budgeting which ensures that women’s and men’s needs and interests are reflected in the budgeting priorities. 

  • Module 4 outlines selecting partner organizations based on the potential for the partnership to help stimulate progress towards gender equality; setting gender equality objectives with partners; capacity building for gender equality; and building a shared vision of gender equality between international non-governmental organizations and partners.

  • Module 5 outlines practical tools and methodology for preparing training sessions that involve discussing gender equality in an intercultural context.  The module also provides ideas for training sessions that discuss the information from Module 1 to 4. 

Promoting Good Local Governance:  Tools to support environmental sustainability, gender equality and social cohesion
This report was developed to assist the Canada/Aceh Local Government Assistance Program (CALGAP) and the Canada/Sri Lanka Municipal Cooperation Program (MCP) implement the following three critical issues to good local governance – environmental sustainability, gender equality, and social cohesion – into their projects in order to obtain good governance.  CALGAP supports improved management and service delivery and strengthened participatory mechanisms in the City of Banda Aceh, the District of Pidie and the District of Aceh Jaya.  MCP supports national tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka and creates an enabling environment for peace-building by increasing local government capacities and promoting good intergovernmental relations.  This report was developed by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities.

Research on Violence Against Women: A Sociological Perspective
This 2010 article reviews various approaches to the study of gender-based violence from a sociological point of view and proposes an intersectional approach to this area.

Rethinking Gender and Violence: Agency, Heterogeneity, and Intersectionality
This 2011 reviews existing research on gender and violence and explores the implications of intersectionality for women’s lived experiences of violence. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Situating Intersectionality: Politics, Policy, and Power
This 2013 edited collection brings together political academics and scholars who employ an intersectionality perspective to articulate specific ways in which political institutions, policies, and political engagement can define, marginalize, and (dis)empower those they seek to serve. The authors in this collection identify and address two key concerns: How can intersectionality help us articulate, listen to, and understand diverse experiences of politics and policy outcomes? Secondly, what does this teach us about political strategizing and the possibility of political solidarity? This is a link to the Ebook version, which is available for purchase.

 Some Men: Feminist Allies & the Movement to End Violence Against Women 
This 2015 book uses life history interviews with men and women anti-violence activists to examine men’s varying paths into anti-violence work, with discussions of intersectionality woven throughout.

Strengthening Domestic Violence Theories: Intersections of Race, Class, Sexual Orientation, and Gender
This article illustrates how the relevance and applicability of contemporary theories and practices may be enhanced by incorporating an intersectional perspective and describes future directions for theory and clinical practice for marital and family therapists.  This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Teaching Intersectional
This website offers teaching materials on intersectionality, including examples of course syllabi at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Teaching Intersectionality Intersectionally
This 2009 article details the creation of the author’s post-secondary course on intersectionality, including examples of approaches and readings discussed.

Terminology - An Integrated Approach to Gender-Based Analysis
Status of Women Canada provided a brief list of terms and definitions related to gender equality.

The Canadian Labour Market at a Glance (2007)
This report looks at key trends in Canada’s job market using information gathered from the Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours, the Employment Insurance Statistics Program, the Workplace and Employee Survey, the Census of Population, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, and the Small Area and Administrative Data Division.  The report examines employment, unemployment rates, participation rates, and labour force status by age; sex; province; large metropolitan areas; mothers; industry, class of worker and occupation; educational attainment and training; hours of work; wages; immigration status; Aboriginal people; and more.  The report also provides international comparisons.

The Complexity of Intersectionality
This classic 2005 article written by Leslie McCall discusses three of the most common approaches to intersectional research: anticategorical complexity, intercategorical complexity, and intracategorical complexity. These approaches refer specifically to how analaytical categories are used and understood to explore the complexity of intersectionality in social life.

The Impact of Culture and Minority Status on Women’s Experiences of Domestic Violence
This article focuses on how women’s experiences of domestic violence are influenced by culture and ethnic background.  The authors completed a research review, which highlights the importance of considering intersectionality when working with women who have experienced domestic violence. The article addresses the issue of how much research to date has ignored the presence of ethnic groups in their samples, and has failed to consider within-group heterogeneity

The Gap in the Gender Gap – Violence Against Women in Canada
This 2013 paper from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives examines the economic costs and spending to Canada of violence against women, specifically sexual assault and intimate partner violence.  The paper describes the level of violence and government spending on resources and services for Canada, each province and territory.  The paper concludes by providing recommendations to increase gender equality and eliminate violence against women.

The Global Gender Gap Report 2013
This report from the World Economic Forum quantifies the magnitude of gender-based disparities in countries across the world and tracks their progress over time.  The Global Gender Gap Index measures gender equality across four key areas: health, education, economics and politics.  Country profiles are also provided that contain comprehensive supporting information on gender parity laws, social norms, policies and outcomes.

The Intersectionality of Domestic Violence and Welfare in the Lives of Poor Women
This article brings to light the impact of intersectionality in the lives of women living in poverty, who experience domestic violence. This article emphasizes the gaps in social policy regarding the lack of consideration toward intersectionality, which ultimately impacts those accessing social services. The article describes intersectionality, and in detail how it pertains to those who experience domestic violence as well as those who access social services. The article stresses the importance of applying intersectionality in policy to better serve the needs of those accessing social services.  

The Problem with the Phrase Women and Minorities: Intersectionality – An Important Theoretical Framework for Public Health
This 2012 paper describes the history and central tenets of intersectionality, addresses theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlights the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase. 

Theories of Intimate Partner Violence: From Blaming the Victim to Acting Against Injustice – Intersectionality as an Analytic Framework
This 2011 article reviews historical and contemporary theories of IPV causes and women’s responses to IPV, including intersectionality. The article concludes with implications for nursing practice and research. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Theorizing from Particularity: Perpetrators and Intersectional Theory on Domestic Violence
This 2013 article extends intersectional analysis to perpetrators of intimate partner violence and examines the methodological implications of doing so.

“This is a Man’s Problem”: Strategies for Working with South Asian Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence
This 2011 research report uses an intersectionality framework to examine the experiences of 17 frontline practitioners working with South Asian men who have engaged in intimate partner violence.  The report concludes with several recommendations for action including culturally informed and culturally appropriate education, training, and professional development for frontline practitioners working with intimate partner violence in South Asian communities.

Training for Change: Practical Tools for Intersectional Workshops
This 2010 publication by the Rainbow Health Network provides various tools and exercises that can be used for leading workshops on intersectionality.

Understanding Violence Against Women and Children: The Need for a Gendered Analysis
This PowerPoint presentation was developed by Walter DeKeseredy and was presented at the Critical Connections symposium of the Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies in March, 2010.  The presentation provides statistics on violence against women and girls in Canada and the need to view this social problem through a gendered lens in order to create and implement policies that target the broader social and social-psychological forces that perpetuate and legitimate violence against women and girls.

Understanding Why Men’s Violence against Women Occurs: An Evidence-based Background Paper for the Primary Prevention of Violence Against Women
This 2016 resource, developed by Women’s Health West (Australia), explores the role of gender inequality in driving men’s violence against women at a system, organizational, community, and individual level. The links between these levels of influence is also explored.

Using Intersectional Feminist Frameworks in Research
This 2007 resource published by CRIAW/ICREF provides an overview of the development of intersectional feminist frameworks (IFFs), including historical and global contexts for understanding women’s lives. The use of IFFs in research is discussed in detail, including framing the research question, finding financial support, recruiting participants, understanding the information, communicating the information, and evaluating your project. Additional resources on intersectionality theory, practice, and research are also provided.

Violence in the Lives of Aboriginal Girls and Young Women in Canada Through an Intersectional Lens
This 2011 fact sheet focuses on violence against Aboriginal girls and young women in the context of intersecting systems of oppression, such as patriarchy, capitalism, and colonialism.

When Black + Lesbian + Woman ≠ Black Lesbian Woman: The Methodological Challenges of Qualitative and Quantitative Intersectionality Research
This 2008 article uses research with Black lesbians to examine the challenges of incorporating intersectionality in measurement, analysis, and interpretation. It also distinguishes between additive and intersectional approaches and highlights the promise of intersectionality research. This is an abstract only.  You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

When Multiplication Doesn’t Equal Quick Addition: Examining Intersectionality as a Research Paradigm
This 2007 article presents a coherent set of empirical research standards for intersectionality. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report
This report is the sixth edition of Women in Canada, published by Statistics Canada, representing the 25th anniversary of this publication.  This report is a compilation of data related to women’s family status, education, employment, economic well-being, unpaid work, health, and more in order to help the reader explore issues and trends related to gender equality in Canada.  The report helps readers understand the different experiences of women compared to men while also recognizing that women’s experiences differ across gender but also within gender groups.  Chapters of the report include: the female population in Canada; families, living arrangements and unpaid work; women and health; women and education; paid work; economic well-being; women and the criminal justice system; First Nations, Métis and Inuit women; immigrant women; visible minority women; senior women; and women with activity limitations.