The Learning Network generates discussion papers based on the outcomes of knowledge exchanges and other events, evaluation reports, and topic-based technical reports on emerging issues. Also contained in this section are peer-reviewed journal articles authored by the Learning Network team.


Exploring the Intersections of Immigrant and Refugee Women Fleeing Violence and Experiencing Homelessness
This report captures key themes that emerged from discussions in March 2017 with academic, government, and community leaders to explore the intersections between immigrant and refugee issues, women fleeing intimate partner violence, homelessness, health/mental health and disability issues, and trauma. Included in the report is a literature review on these areas of focus and their intersections, and barriers to fleeing violent relationships, to accessing supports and services, and to obtaining safe, secure and affordable housing for immigrant and refugee women. Promising approaches to address gaps in knowledge, policy, and service delivery, and considerations for moving forward are also highlighted in the paper.

Links between the Maltreatment of Girls and Later Victimization or Use of Violence
Approximately one third of Canadian women will first experience abuse in childhood. Many of these women will continue to experience violence across the life course; some will use violence in subsequent peer, intimate, or family relationships. This discussion paper provides an overview of the literature on the connection between early and later victimization or use of violence and highlights the implications for health and well-being. Both theoretical explanations and empirical evidence are reviewed. Limitations of the current research are discussed, including the importance of viewing these life course associations within the broader social context.  The report concludes with future directions offered to improve our understanding of - and response to - the violence experienced by women and girls.
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Gender Diversity in the VAW Sector: Identifying Barriers and Recommendations for Consideration
This discussion paper is informed by the Learning Network Knowledge Exchange on gender diversity in the violence against women sector (VAW) held in Toronto, Ontario in November 2016. It includes key themes which emerged from the panel presentations and discussions by participants including barriers to gender diversity in the VAW sector and recommendations for consideration. After you have read the paper, we hope you will join the discussion (Twitter: #GenderDiversityKE) or send us your thoughts about the paper and possible next steps for enhancing gender inclusivity in the VAW sector (


Exploring the Intersections of Domestic Violence and Sexual Violence: A Discussion Paper Informed by the February 2016 Knowledge Exchange (2016)
This discussion paper is informed by the Learning Network, OAITH, and OCRCC Knowledge Exchange on intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) held in Toronto, Ontario in February 2016. It includes key themes which emerged from the research presentations and discussions by participants (including submitted discussion sheets), as well as results and comments from the event’s evaluation survey. IPSV resources are also included. After you have read the paper, we hope you will join the discussion (Twitter: @learntoendabuse | #IPSVKE) or send us your thoughts about the paper and possible next steps for responding to and preventing IPSV (

Gender-Based Violence Training Programs: Online, Face-to-Face and Blended Formats
With an increasing need for training curriculums on gender-based violence (GBV), it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages associated with available educational options in order to determine which may best suit an organization’s or individuals’ needs or purpose.

OAITH Foundations of Violence Against Women (VAW) Online Training Program Evaluation (2016)
The Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses (OAITH) developed an online training course for individuals working or planning to work in the violence against women (VAW) sector, entitled the Foundations of VAW Online Training Course. OAITH requested an external evaluation of the Foundations course to be carried out by the Learning Network. The evaluation contained in this report includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments of participants’ perceived and actual learning from the Foundations course across two groups of participants. Results point to the value of the course in its positive impact on a variety of participant outcomes (e.g. knowledge, attitudes), mapping on to key core competencies for domestic violence training. This is one of the first evaluations to assess an online training course using the core competencies, which represent key aspects of VAW work identified by VAW stakeholders and domestic violence training developers and deliverers.

The Link between Boys' Victimization & Adult Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Opportunities for Prevention across the Life Course (2016)
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, pressing, and preventable public health issue that, while not gender-specific, is overwhelmingly perpetrated against women by men. One risk factor for men’s IPV perpetration is the experience of maltreatment in childhood; that is, neglect, abuse, or exposure to IPV. While it is important to recognize the wide range of factors involved in IPV perpetration, this discussion paper draws attention to the ways in which IPV prevention can be enhanced through identifying men at risk of becoming perpetrators at earlier points in their lives and mitigating the impact of experiences of violence through age-specific intervention programs. Specifically, the aim of this paper is to identify pathways from childhood maltreatment to IPV perpetration in order to highlight these two forms of violence as intricately linked public health issues with implications for prevention across the life course. The report consists of three parts. Part 1 provides theoretical explanations for the connection between victimization as a boy and IPV perpetration as an adult, and reviews the evidence supporting this link. Part 2 outline primary, secondary, and tertiary modes of prevention, with specific discussion of evidence-based and promising prevention programs for boys and men by life stage. Part 3 provides considerations and future directions for health and its community partners. We also invite you to read our newsletter, based on this report, here.
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Intimate Partner Violence in Rainbow Communities: A Discussion Paper Informed by the Learning Network Knowledge Exchange (2014)
This discussion paper is informed by the Learning Network Knowledge Exchange on IPV in LGBT communities held in London, Ontario in November 2014.  It contains comments from participants, information from the literature on IPV in LGBT communities, discussions on the experiences of IPV, consequences of IPV and barriers to understanding, disclosing and seeking help, and considerations for continuing to move forward. We’ve included a glossary and links to helpful resources. After you have read the paper we hope you will join the discussion (Twitter:@learntoendabuse | #RainbowKE) or send us your thoughts about the paper and possible next steps for responding to and preventing IPV (

Keeping Children & Mothers Safe and Engaging Men who use Abusive Behaviours: VAW and CAS Collaboration Knowledge Exchange (2013)
The Learning Network hosted a Forum on September 19, 2013 on VAW and CAS collaboration.  The focus was on keeping children and mothers safe and engaging men who use abusive behaviours.  The learning objectives included: understanding the issue within a gender-based analysis; identifying principles and practice strategies for engaging men who use violence; identifying risk factors and potential assessment tools for evaluating child risk in the context of domestic violence; and identifying promising practices in VAW and CAS collaboration.
View Brief 15 summarizing the event.


Overcoming Barriers and Enhancing Supportive Responses: The Research on Sexual Violence Against Women - A Resource Document (2012)

This review of the literature on sexual violence flows from the Ontario government’s Sexual Violence Action Plan: Changing Attitudes, Changing Lives. The goal was to create a resource document to support the development of introductory training on sexual violence, including supportive responses to victims/survivors who disclose experiences of sexual violence. Topics covered include: understanding sexual violence; rape myths; consequences experienced by survivors; barriers to disclosure; safe and supportive responses to disclosures.

Evaluating Violence Against Women Training Initiatives: A Primer (2012)
Ryan Broll, Claire Crooks, Linda Baker, Anna-Lee Straatman
This report briefly describes the purpose of evaluations followed by the review of current evaluation literature on the effectiveness of VAW training initiatives. The report outlines the types and levels of evaluation, importance of logic models - including examples and guides on developing them, common evaluation challenges, and critical steps to consider when conducting an evaluation of VAW training programs.

Report on the Evaluation of Violence Against Women Public Education Campaigns: A Discussion Paper (2012)
The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview on the evaluation of VAW social marketing / public education campaigns. We begin by briefly describing the purpose of evaluations, before consider social marketing / public education campaigns and the rationale behind them. We then consider what the evaluation literature tells us about the effectiveness of VAW social marketing / public education campaigns, before describing the role of evaluations in VAW campaigns and outlining the types and levels of evaluation available. Finally, we discuss the importance of logic models, providing examples and guides on how to construct them, identify common evaluation challenges, and offer several critical steps to consider when conducting an evaluation of VAW social marketing/public education campaigns.

Knowledge Exchange Workshop on Domestic Violence Training (2011)
The Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children brought together the developers and deliverers of Domestic Violence Training in Ontario that have been funded through the Ontario Women's Directorate and other key stakeholders. The overall purpose for the meeting was to promote knowledge exchange and planning for domestic violence training. The meeting also had specific objectives:

  • To update each participant on the nature and extent of DV training that has been developed and implemented as part of the Domestic Violence Action Plan;
  • To develop a proposed core curriculum that can be used to assess the content of current training;
  • To identify best practices that could be applied to new/other training initiatives (e.g. as part of training for the Sexual Violence Action Plan);
  • To identify opportunities for collaboration with other trainers/ organizations/ sectors;
  • To identify future needs; and
  • To identify mechanisms for knowledge exchange amongst Violence Against Women trainers, curriculum developers, post-secondary institutions and professional development organizations.