Sexual & Gender-based Harassment

A harassing climate?  Sexual harassment and campus racial climate research
This 2013 conceptual paper examines the content and methodology of sexual harassment research related to undergraduate students and the limits to this work.  The authors contrast this examination of sexual harassment literature with the more common campus racial climate research in order to think about improving campus climates more generally.  This paper discusses the importance of understanding how intersecting identities influence student experiences.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

A methodological review of research on the antecedents and consequences of workplace harassment
This 2014 review paper examined peer-reviewed articles published over a 26-year period that focused on the antecendents, consequences, or process of diverse forms of workplace harassment in order to identify threats to construct, internal, external, and statistical conclusion validity in the methodological content of the research.  Results suggest that study validity needs to be improved in order to advance theory development including using longitudinal and experimental designs and within-person approaches, incorporating perspectives of witnesses and perpetrators of harassment, and focusing on the dynamic processes of workplace harassment.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Abusive online conduct: Discrimination and harassment in cyberspace
This 2013 conceptual paper examines two types of abusive online conduct: weblining (“denying people opportunities based on their digital selves”) and cyberbullying.  These topics are examined from an ethical perspective with a focus on gender and racial discrimination issues.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Addressing workplace bullying and harassment in Canada, research, legislation, and stakeholder overview: Profiling a union program. (p. 135-64)
This 2013 paper examines Canadian initiatives and legislation aligned with workplace bullying, domestic violence in the workplace, and mental health and workplace violence in the form of bullying.  Specifically, in terms of legislation, the paper looks at the Canadian Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms; Canadian and Provincial Human Rights Acts; Occupational Safety Acts; and Provincial legislation on workplace harassment/bullying.  The paper also identifies Canadian stakeholders that work to understand and address workplace bullying such as non-government organizations, ad-hoc groups, academic, and labour/trade unions.  Finally, the paper examines direction and initiatives around workplace violence.

An overview of the literature on antecedents, perceptions and behavioural consequences of sexual harassment
This 2012 review paper examines the existing research on sexual harassment with a focus on factors that may facilitate its occurrence; provides an overview of the differences in perceptions of what constitutes sexual harassment according to gender, organisational power and context; reviews the negative impact of sexual harassment on its victims; and examines the link between victims’ responses to sexual harassment and the stress and coping literature.  Suggestions are made for future research, policy making, and interventions.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Angus Reid Institute – Sexual Harassment Survey and Report
In 2014, the Angus Reid Institute released a report of the key findings from a national online survey they conducted on sexual harassment in the workplace.  The survey polled 1500 Canadian adults who were currently working or who have ever worked outside the home.  Some key findings include: almost 30% of respondents said they experienced either harassment or unwanted contact or both in the workplace with one quarter of these respondents stating that the experience occurred within the past two years; women were almost four times as likely than men to have been harassed at work; 80% of respondents who experienced harassment did not report the behaviour to their employers with the majority stating they would rather deal with the problem on their own; for those that did report the harassment to their employer, the majority found their employer to be responsive and believed that they took appropriate action; and when asked about other actions they may take when experiencing harassment in the workplace, the majority of respondents said they would confront the harasser directly.  Other survey questions include: what would you do if you were harassed at work (for those who had not experienced workplace harassment)? Is sexual harassment in the workplace an important issue or overblown? And what do you consider acceptable in the workplace (e.g., calling a co-worker’s outfit ‘sexy’; giving a colleague a shoulder rub; putting your arm around a co-worker)?

Are there health effects of harassment in the workplace? A gender-sensitive study of the relationships between work and neck pain
This 2012 Canadian study examined the relationship between workplace harassment and neck pain among male and female employees.  Results revealed that workplace intimidation was significantly associated with neck pain among both male and female employees and sexual harassment (unwanted sexual attention) was significantly associated with neck pain among female employees.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Barriers to Reporting Sexual Harassment
Learning Network Brief 26
This Brief discusses some of the barriers that make reporting sexual harassment difficult and for some, lead to more complex consequences.

Below the “tip of the iceberg”: Extra-legal responses to workplace sexual harassment
This 2011 examines extra-legal strategies (i.e., the less visible but more frequent formal and informal organizational practices) that victims used to redress, resist or avoid workplace sexual harassment.  Findings indicate that the majority of victims do not formally report the harassment for fear of retribution or that nothing will be done; however victims use proactive or assertive alternative strategies, such as seeking informal assistance and ‘dealing with the problem themselves’.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Cat-calls and culpability: Investigating the frequency and functions of stranger harassment
This 2010 study examined stranger harassment, ‘experiencing unwanted sexual attention from strangers in public’, as facilitated by undergraduate males from a Midwestern university.  Results revealed that undergraduate men who were assessed as likely to sexually harass someone most often reported engaging in the harassment when in a group compared to when alone.  Furthermore, these group behaviours of harassment were motivated by anonymity and group bonding.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

ConsentEd
ConsentEd is a website developed by 11 individuals in Edmonton, AB who are working towards ending sexual violence.  The purpose of the website is to start a conversation around sexual violence prevention.  The website includes information on sexual violence, assault, harassment, stalking, and power and control and includes basic definitions and short video clips.

Current Issues in Mental Health in Canada:  Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace
This 2013 paper from the Parliament of Canada examines factors that may contribute to mental health problems in the workplace and initiatives that promote psychological health and safety in Canadian workplaces, such as legal protections, the national standard, and other primary and secondary workplace-based prevention and intervention initiatives.

Cyber Misogyny
Learning Network Brief 28
This learning brief examines cyber misogyny, or the various forms of gendered hatred, harassment, and abusive behaviour targeted at women and girls via the Internet. Manifestations and consequences of cyber misogyny are provided along with a discussion of the new opportunities to engage in harassment and abuse presented by the Internet and Canadian legal responses.

Developing Workplace Violence and Harassment Policies and Programs: A Toolbox
This toolbox was developed by the Occupational Health & Safety Council of Ontario.  The purpose of the toolbox is to support the “Developing Workplace Violence and Harassment Policies and Programs: What Employers Need to Know” guide that outlines steps that will help employers protect workers from workplace violence.  The toolbox contains information, tools, and assessments that will help employers develop a workplace violence, harassment, or domestic violence policy and program.

Developing Workplace Violence and Harassment Policies and Programs: What Employers Need to Know
This guide was developed by the Occupational Health & Safety Council of Ontario to assist employers meet the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act.  The Act requires employers assess the risks of workplace violence and put policies and programs into place that respond to workplace violence and harassment.  Topics include: overview and context for action; violence in the workplace; developing a workplace violence policy and program; domestic violence; workplace harassment; developing a workplace harassment policy and program; and resources.  This guide is meant to be used in accompaniment with the Developing Workplace Violence and Harassment Policies and Programs Toolbox.

Domestic Violence Doesn’t Stop When Your Worker Arrives at Work:  What Employers Need to Know to Help
This booklet was developed by the Occupational Health & Safety Council of Ontario to assist employers in helping employees who are experiencing domestic violence.  The booklet defines domestic violence; explains why employers need to become involved; identifies factors that can increase a victim’s risk of harm or death; discusses how an employer can recognize domestic violence in the workplace; outlines what an employer should do to respond to domestic violence; and provides resources for more information or support.

E-Newsletter Issue 13: Sexual and Gender-based Harassment
To contribute to Sexual Harassment Awareness Week (June 1 to 7, 2015), the Learning Network is pleased to have released a special newsletter on Sexual and Gender-based Harassment. Learn more about sexual harassment, its potential impacts, barriers to reporting, myths, realities, and what each of us can do to stop this form of sexual violence.  We also hope you will visit our new Network Area where we’ve posted over 30 resources/research papers on this topic.
Plaintext Version

Encourage. Support. Act! Bystander Approaches to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
This 2012 report from the Australian Human Rights Commission draws upon theoretical and empirical research examining the potential for bystander approaches to prevent and respond to workplace sexual harassment.  Topics include: sexual harassment: an overview; sexual harassment from the perspective of bystanders; the motivations and actions of bystanders: theoretical perspectives on bystander intervention; bystander interventions in violence prevention; legal and organizational implications of bystander approaches for sexual harassment; and a moving towards a prevention framework.

Experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment in the Canadian forces combat arms.
This 2013 qualitative study looks at women’s experiences or perceptions of harassment in the Canadian combat arms, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting.

Expanding the conceptualization of workplace violence: Implications for research, policy, and practice
This 2014 paper discusses workplace violence and its overall impact on women across the globe.  The authors advocate for broader, transdisciplinary, intersectional, and transnational conceptualizations of workplace violence in research, policy, and practice in order to promote broader recognition and acknowledgement of women’s experiences of interpersonal violence in the contexts of their multiple work roles in unpaid and informal work as well as in formal workplaces.  Incorporating intersectional, transnational, and transdisciplinary perspectives into research, policy, and practice will highlight women’s experiences of workplace violence within their own social locations and will facilitate cross-cultural comparisons contributing to more effective education and prevention efforts, improved reporting procedures, and enhanced support services.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Exploring gender differences in body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment
This 2013 examined the relationship between body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment among men and women.  Results revealed that women in general reported greater weight concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and binge eating than men.  Furthermore, sexual harassment increased all participants’ body image concerns and eating pathology but particularly for women.  Sexual harassment also increased compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and using laxatives and/or diuretics, for all participants but especially for men.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Everyday stranger harassment and women’s objectification
This 2008 study examined the negative implications of stranger harassment (i.e., experiencing unwanted sexual attention from strangers in public) on young adult women’s well-being.  Results revealed that young adult women experience stranger harassment quite frequently; stranger harassment was positively related to self-objectification particularly for women who used common passive coping strategies (e.g., self-blame) compared to women who used uncommon active coping strategies (e.g., confronting the harasser); and harassment experiences and self-objectification were positively related to women’s fear of and perceived risk of rape and women who feared rape were more likely to restrict their freedom of movement.

Fear of violence and street harassment: accountability at the intersections
This 2013 PhD dissertation takes an intersectional approach in understanding the relationships between gender, race, sexuality, street harassment, fear, and social control.  The study looks at how accountability to being recognizably female is linked to street harassment and fear of crime for lesbians and other queer women.  Interviews with thirty white and women of colour lesbians and bisexuals were conducted to explore street harassment experiences, perceptions of fear and risk, and strategies for staying safe from the perspectives of queer women in rural, suburban, and urban locations.  Key findings indicate a distinct link between accountability to being recognizably female and types of harassment experienced and types of assault feared; institutional violence shapes the fears and safety strategies of queer women of colour and white privilege affects women’s willingness to consider self-defence in response to their fears; and responses to fear and street harassment are shaped by the incite/invite dilemma (the predicament women face during street harassment whey they try to avoid responses that might incite escalated violence while also avoiding response that might be viewed as an invitation for more aggressive harassment).

Framing sexual harassment through media representations
This 2013 examined mainstream news media reporting sexual harassment in four industrialized countries to identify which sexual harassment cases are considered newsworthy and to illuminate the discourses evident in these texts that shape understandings of workplace gender inequality.  Results indicated that media most frequently report “classic” sexual harassment cases and emphasizes scandalous allegations and overtly sexualized conduct.  Furthermore, media reports often use discourse that emphasizes sexual harassment as an individualized problem of inappropriate employee behaviour as opposed to a systemic issue or a symptom of broader gender inequality.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Gender differences in college students’ perceptions of same-sex sexual harassment: The influence of physical attractiveness and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men
This 2011 study examined college students’ perceptions of same-sex harassment based on the observer’s gender, the harasser’s physical attractiveness, and the observer’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.  College students read a scenario portraying a professor’s sexual advances toward a student and completed two questionnaires.  Results revealed that male and female students had similar perceptions of harassment; unattractive professors were perceived to be more harassing, especially by male students; and students with negative attitudes toward homosexuality perceived higher levels of harassment.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender
This 2013 study examines how sexual harassment policy training affects gender beliefs.  Findings illustrate that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms and that men and women’s different structural locations lead to different, but related, sets of concerns about the threats to status posed by sexual harassment policies.  This study sets the stage for exploring ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

How workplace bullying changes how women promote their health
This 2011 Canadian study examined how women care for their health after experiencing workplace bullying.  Results revealed that workplace bullying disrupted women’s health.  Women addressed these negative health outcomes through protecting, mobilizing, and rebuilding behaviours which are influenced by support networks, past experiences, perception of employability, values and beliefs, and relationship patterns.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

HR Proactive Inc.  Harassment Investigation
HR Proactive is a consultancy business with experience in providing human resources/human rights related services.  HR Proactive provides products and services to promote respectful and productive workplaces including an employer’s guide to conducting harassment investigations; a sample workplace violence policy; and a sample workplace harassment policy.

Is it Harassment? A Tool to Guide Employees
The Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat developed this tool to guide employees around their understanding of workplace harassment.  The tool helps employees analyze a situation to determine if it is considered workplace harassment.  Topics include: a definition of harassment; defining where workplace harassment can occur; identifying what criteria must be met to establish whether there was harassment; the time limit to file a complaint; examples of what constitutes workplace harassment; examples of what does not constitute workplace harassment; questions to ask yourself to help frame the situation; defining a poisoned work environment; and steps to take if you believe you have been harassed.

Not taking it any more: Women who report or file complaints of sexual harassment
This 1999 Canadian survey looked at the conditions under which women report workplace harassment and its effects.  Data from a telephone survey of Canadian working women and from the Canadian Human Rights Commission indicated that women tend to file external complaints when harassment involves a supervisor, multiple harassers or is severe.  Women who report were shown to have more adverse outcomes than women who didn’t report.  Reporting had a negative impact on the victim’s work and personal life with the majority of victims leaving the job where the complaint occurred.  Legally relevant variables (e.g., severity or psychological distress) predicted the settlement of complaints.  Personal characteristics (e.g., age, marital status, income) had little impact on reporting.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: A quantitative review
This 2014 examined 136 research articles on exposure rates of violence for nurses by type of violence (physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment), setting (emergency dept., geriatric, hospital, psychiatric), source (patient, family/friend, nurse, physician, staff), and world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe, Middle East).  Results indicated that overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault.  The highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment occurred in the Anglo region of the world (English speaking countries that were culturally and linguistically similar) and the highest rates for nonphysical violence and bullying occurred in the Middle East.  Patients were most often the perpetrators of violence in Anglo and European regions of the world and patients’ families/friends were the most common perpetrators in the Middle East.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Racial and ethnic differences in factors related to workplace violence victimization
This 2015 study examined exposure to workplace violence and utilization of workplace resources among different racial/ethnic groups.  The sample was comprised of 2,033 nursing employees (the majority were female 92%) who completed online surveys about workplace violence.  The research focused on White (64.5%), Black (24%), and Asian (11.5%) participants.  Results indicated that past experiences of non-workplace violence (i.e., childhood abuse; intimate partner violence) may pose a risk of experiencing workplace violence among employees from all racial/ethnic backgrounds.  Specifically, childhood physical abuse appeared to be a risk factor for physical workplace violence for employees regardless of racial/ethnic background; childhood physical and sexual abuse were associated with physical and psychological workplace violence among Black employees; and intimate partner violence was a risk factor for workplace violence with Asian and White employees.  Overall formal resource utilization was low with reasons for not reporting including the view that workplace violence is part of the job and that management would not be responsive.  However, results revealed that Black and Asian employees were less likely than White employees to be knowledgeable about workplace violence resources or to use the resources to address this violence.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Revisiting the comparative outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment
This 2012 Canadian study examined the different outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor for female employees.  Results revealed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression.  Sexual harassment was also more strongly associated with employees thinking about quitting their jobs; job, co-worker, and supervisor satisfaction; work withdrawal; and commitment to the organization if the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact.   

Sex-based harassment in employment: New insights into gender and context
This 2014 examines the representation of one’s gender in the employment context as a risk factor for sex-based harassment.  The study analyzed survey data from men and women working in academia, the court system, and the military.  Results revealed that underrepresentation of women in the workplace increased the odds of women experiencing gender harassment but not sexual-advance harassment whereas an underrepresentation of men in the workplace did not increase the risk for either type of harassment but rather decreased the odds in some contexts.  The authors suggest that organizations should strive for gender balance in all workplaces in order to reduce harassment.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Sexual Harassment and Public Space
Learning Network Brief 27
This Brief explores how patterns of sexual harassment often reflect the cultural norms connected with the spaces or environments (school, work, public spaces) in which it occurs.  The analysis provides examples of how sexual harassment can work to define or re-assert gender, race, age or class hierarchies within spaces in harmful ways.

Sexual harassment in public places: Experiences of Canadian women
This 1999 Canadian study examined sexual harassment in public places such as streets, transit systems, and malls as described in a 1992 survey of 1990 Canadian women.  The types, frequency, and severity of harassment were examined, as well as the characteristics of women most likely to be harassed, the theoretical implications of public harassment, women’s responses to harassment, and the emotional and psychological effects.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Still stable after all these years: Perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts
This 2011 study examined perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts using data collected in 1990 and 2000.  The influence of gender, gender role, and power of the harasser on perceptions of harassment were assessed.  Results indicated that when the harasser was a higher-power individual, participants perceived scenarios as sexual harassment, viewed female victims more positively, and evaluated the male harasser more negatively.  However, participants viewed male harassers less negatively over time.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Stop Street Harassment: Making Public Places Safe and Welcoming for Women
This 2010 book draws on academic studies, informal surveys, news articles, and interviews with activists to explore the complexities of street harassment.  The book provides concrete strategies for dealing with street harassers and way one can become involved in working to end this type of violence.  Chapters include: raise your hand if you’ve experienced street harassment; context in which street harassment occurs; multilayered harassment; street harassment is a global problem; women’s views: harassing or complimentary behaviour? strategies women practice to avoid harassment; educating men and engaging male allies; empowering women; raising public awareness; and making street harassment an issue.

Stranger danger: The role of perpetrator and context in moderating reactions to sexual harassment
This 2014 study compared sexual harassment that occurred in achievement contexts (i.e., work and school) to stranger harassment specifically looking at the relationship between the perpetrator and victim (coworkers vs. strangers); the location (bar vs. office vs. store); and the type of sexually harassing behaviour (touching vs. eyeing).  Results revealed that harassment by strangers was perceived as more severe, produced more negative emotions, and led to more active coping strategies than harassment by coworkers.  Harassment in a bar was perceived as less sexually harassing and severe, produced fewer negative emotions, and led to less active coping strategies than harassment in an office and sometimes in a store.  Finally, harassment involving touching was seen as more severe, elicited more negative emotions and active coping and decreased passive coping especially with stranger harassers.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Street Harassment: Know Your Rights
The Thomson Reuters Foundation’s global pro bono service, TrustLaw, presented a guide which outlines laws and policies related to street harassment around the world.  The guide is the result of a collaboration between TrustLaw, Hollaback! And a team of dedicated lawyers around the world.  The chapter dedicated to street harassment in Canada outlines whether street harassment is against the law in Canada and what kind of behaviour is considered illegal based on the Criminal Code of Canada.  It also outlines any provincial or municipal laws that may prohibit street harassment; certain behaviours that outlawed specifically; how to report harassment; the reporting process; specific harassment policies; the variability of harassment laws in different states/cities; and other important information about harassment laws in Canada.  Much of the information is discussed within the individual laws and policies of particular Canadian provinces and territories.

The experiences of sexual harassment in sport and education among European female sports science students
This 2014 study examines female students’ experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education.  A sample of female students from three European countries answered a questionnaire.  Results indicated that students experienced more sexual harassment in an educational setting than in a sport setting primarily due to sexual harassment from peers in school.  The authors discuss the potential protective factor of the sense of belonging/camaraderie that a sport club member may experience and the respective sport rules and club/team rules that may establish boundaries for acceptable and non-acceptable behaviours.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

The Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) Scale
This 20-item scale was developed by researchers (K. Lonsway, L. Cortina & V. Magley, 2008) to measure the extent to which respondents endorse myths about sexual harassment.  Research findings indicate that the measure shares relationships with factors such as rape mythology, sexism, hostility toward women, and traditional attitudes toward women.

The incidence and impact of women’s experiences of sexual harassment in Canadian workplaces
This 1999 Canadian study examined the largest Canadian survey (1,990 women) devoted to women’s experiences with workplace sexual harassment to determine the incidence of various types of harassment and details about these experiences.  Results indicated that over half (56%) of Canadian working women experienced sexual harassment in the year prior to the survey and over three-quarters (77%) experienced sexual harassment in their lifetime.  The most common types of harassment included starting, jokes or remarks about women in general and jokes about the respondents specifically.  Most of the incidents (65%) persisted for weeks or less and involved one harasser (70%).  Just under half of the incidents (47%) were perpetrated by co-workers.  Nearly one-third (30%) of the women reported that their job was affected by the harassment with the duration of the harassment impacting whether the woman experienced job-related or personal difficulties.  Just over half of the women (53%) dealt with the harassment directly (e.g., reporting, retaliating, confronting) with the other women responding indirectly (e.g., ignoring, taking it as a joke, avoiding the situation, changing own behaviour).  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

The influence of sexual harassment frequency and perceptions of organizational justice on victim responses to sexual harassment
This 2011 Canadian study used the Organizational Justice Theory to explore the conditions that influence how women respond to sexual harassment at work.  Specifically, the study examined the impact of distributive justice (perceived fairness of the final grievance resolution or decision outcome); procedural justice (perceived fairness of the grievance procedures or decision-making process); interpersonal justice (the degree to which people believe that they will be treated with respect, sensitivity, and dignity by those responsible for enacting the grievance procedures); or informational justice (the perceived fairness of the explanations provided by the individual responsible for enacting the grievance procedures) and sexual harassment frequency on victim confrontation and reporting. Data from 257 female employees found that the interaction between sexual harassment frequency and perceptions of distributive justice and the interaction between sexual harassment frequency and perceptions of procedural justice predicted reporting, whereas the interaction between sexual harassment frequency and perceptions of distributive justice predicted confrontation.  The interaction between sexual harassment frequency and perceptions of informational justice predicted both confrontation and reporting.

Victims’ psychosocial well-being after reporting sexual harassment in the military
This 2014 study examined the relationship between reporting, experiences reporting, and psychosocial well-being among former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service.  Results revealed that making a formal report was not associated with well-being; however with those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD.  Satisfaction with the reporting process had the strongest association with well-being and mediated the relationship between victims’ perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Violence against and the harassment of women in Canadian public housing: An exploratory study
This 1999 Canadian study examined the extent of various types of woman abuse (e.g., intimate partner violence; stranger violence; sexual and racial harassment) in public housing.  Results indicated that 26% of women reporting experiencing verbal harassment (2% were insulted because the harasser thought they were gay or lesbian; 9.5% were insulted because harassing did not like their skin colour or religion; and 21% had sexual remarks about them that made them feel uncomfortable).  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Virtual harassment: media characteristics’ role in psychological health
This 2013 Canadian research study uses the stressor-strain model and media richness theory to examine the relationship between receiving a harassing message via computer and psychological health.  Results suggest that virtual harassment is associated with diminished psychological health.  Furthermore, media characteristics (e.g. anonymity, location) play a role in understanding the level of fear of future harassment.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Who cares what she thinks, what does he say?  Links between masculinity, in-group bonding and gender harassment
This 2014 study looked at gender ingroup bonding and gender harassment among heterosexual male undergraduate students.  Participants received a threat to their masculinity before being exposed to a gender ingroup member whose reaction to sexist jokes was manipulated.  Results revealed that men high on conformity to masculine norms altered their behavior to correspond with feedback from the gender ingroup member after their masculinity was threatened, whereas men low on conformity to masculine norms rejected gender ingroup feedback after a masculinity threat. A variable examining reported liking of the gender ingroup member produced a similar pattern, while no changes were observed in reported liking of a gender outgroup member.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Workplace Sexual harassment 30 years on: A review of the literature
This 2012 review article describes the collective research over the past 30 years on workplace sexual harassment as it pertains to management and organizations.  The article evaluates the evidence/research, highlights competing perspectives, and identifies areas in need of further investigation.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Workplace Sexual Harassment Reference and Rights Guide
In 2014, the United Food & Commercial Workers International Union (UFCW) of Canada released Workplace Sexual Harassment Reference and Rights Guide to help UFCW Canada members and their families deal with sexual harassment in the workplace.  The guide outlines a brief history of sexual harassment in Canada; defines sexual harassment and what counts as a ‘workplace’; provides examples of sexual harassment; outlines steps to take if being harassed at work; and describes sexual harassment laws by jurisdiction.