This Glossary provides a central place to find the meaning of key terms in Gender-Based Violence (GBV) work and to access resources for further learning. It will grow and change as the GBV field does. If you find a term should be added or revised, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
You can view the terms associated with a letter by selecting the letter below. Crossed out letters do not have any terms. You can also click here for a PDF of all the included terms.
“Failure to protect is a form of child neglect. It implies that the neglecting parent has failed to protect a child when it was possible to do so. While this may sometimes be the case, the term is very controversial when applied to parents who are also victims themselves, such as in the case of victimized women. As viewed by advocates of domestic violence, this term is a key charge by which child protective services find mothers who are victims of domestic violence neglectful under state law, by failing to protect or endangering their children through exposure to domestic violence against them. The consequence of such a finding can lead to children being removed from the home and placed in foster care.” 
 Jerry Silverman, G. (2008). Failure to protect. In C. M. Renzetti & J. L. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence (Vol. 1, pp. 233-234). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412963923.n157
 Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). CRRF Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/resources/glossary-a-terms-en-gb-1
“The different terms used for family violence can have slightly different meanings depending on where and how they are used, such as in a courtroom or a hospital. For example:
- Domestic violence can sometimes mean family violence and sometimes it means intimate partner violence.
- Intimate partner violence refers to physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse and can also be called dating violence between couples who are not married.
- The terms violence against women and gender-based violence are also used.
- Child abuse is sometimes called child maltreatment or neglect, and elder abuse is sometimes referred to as neglect.” 
- Learning Brief: It Shouldn’t Be This Hard: Family Law, Family Court and Violence Against Women and Children—Learning Network
 Department of Justice. (2017, January). Family violence. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/fv-vf/index.html
 Luke's Place. (2015, September). Family violence is relevant in family law processes. Retrieved from https://lukesplace.ca/family-violence-is-relevant-in-family-law-processes/
 Public Health Agency of Canada. (2014, August). What is family violence?. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/stop-family-violence/family-violence.html
“Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.”  “Infections incurred as the result of unhygienic operations frequently result in loss of life, which is considered an acceptable outcome.” 
“The World Health Organization has classified FGM into four types:
Type I – Excision of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.
Type II – Excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora.
Type III – Excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching/narrowing of the vaginal opening (infibulation).
Type IV – Unclassified which includes pricking, piercing or incising of the clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the clitoris and/or labia; cauterization by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue.” 
 World Health Organization. (n.d.). Types of female genital mutilation. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/overview/en/
 Etherington, N. & Baker, L. (2015). Forms of femicide. Learning Network Brief 29. London, Ontario: Learning Network, Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/briefs/brief-29.html
"Femicide is the intentional killing of women and girls because they are women and girls." 
There are different forms of femicide including:
- Intimate Femicide:The killing of women and girls by current or former partners or family members.
- Non-Intimate Femicide:The killing of women and girls by someone without an intimate relationship with them (e.g. serial killings motivated by misogyny).
- Murder in the Name of ‘Honor’:The killing of women and girls because their lived experience (e.g. engaging in premarital sex) is judged as a violation of gender and/or family expectations.
- Female Infanticide and Gender-Based Sex-Selective Foeticide:The killing of female infants or fetuses because they are female.
- Genital Mutilation Related Femicide:The killing of women and girls resulting from complications associated with female genital mutilation.
- Dowry-Related Femicide:The killing of a woman or girl by the groom’s family because the dowry (e.g. money, property) provided by her family is judged as inadequate.
- Organized Crime Related Femicide:The killing of women and girls associated with gangs, drugs, human trafficking, and/or gun proliferation. 
- Web Resource: Femicide in Ontario Annual List and Media Analysis – Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses (OAITH)
- Organization: Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability
- Issue-Based Newsletter: Femicide – Learning Network
- Issue-Based Newsletter: Femicide of Women Who Are Older – Learning Network
 Baker, L., Etherington, N., Pietsch, N., & Straatman, A. (2015). Femicide. Learning Network Issue 14. London, ON: Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/issuebased_newsletters/issue-14/index.html
 Etherington, N. & Baker, L. (2015). Forms of Femicide. Learning Network Brief 29. London, ON: Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/briefs/brief-29.html
Feminism has a rich and complicated history, and it can entail different meanings and applications for many people. Nevertheless, the influential feminist bell hooks offers the following “simplified,” “open-ended” way of thinking about this term:
“Simply put, feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression... I liked this definition because it did not imply that men were the enemy. By naming sexism as the problem it went directly to the heart of the matter. Practically, it is a definition which implies that all sexist thinking and action is the problem, whether those who perpetuate it are female or male, child or adult. It is also broad enough to include an understanding of systemic institutionalized sexism. As a definition it is open-ended. To understand feminism it implies one has to necessarily understand sexism.” 
 hooks, bell. (2000). Feminism is for Everybody: Passionate Politics. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
Femme is “an identity that encapsulates femininity that is dislocated from, and not necessitating, a female body/identity, as well as a femininity that is embodied by those whose femininity is deemed culturally unsanctioned.” 
 Blair, K. L., & Hoskin, R. A. (2015). “Experiences of femme identity: Coming out, invisibility and femmephobia.” Psychology & Sexuality, 6(3): 229–244, p. 232.
“First Nation is a term used to identify Indigenous peoples of Canada who are neither Métis nor Inuit. This term came into common usage in the 1970s to replace the term “Indian” and “Indian band” which many find offensive. First Nation is used instead of “Indian” when referring to an individual. First Nations people includes both status and non-status Indians and is used to refer to a single band or the plural First Nations for many bands. The term ‘First Nation Community’ is a respectful alternative phrase; however, First Nation communities in Ontario have expressed publicly and politically that they prefer Indigenous Peoples.” 
 Indigenous Corporate Training Inc. (2016, July 20). Indigenous Peoples terminology guidelines for usage. Retrieved from https://www.ictinc.ca/blog/indigenous-peoples-terminology-guidelines-for-usage