Femicide

25 Years of Femicide
This 2015 report from the Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses (OAITH) examines intimate partner femicide in Ontario from 1990 to 2015 using media reports. Various aspects of intimate partner femicide are discussed, including: victim characteristics, offender characteristics, OAITH femicide data and media analysis, victim representation in the media, and directions for future research/recommendations.

A Descriptive Study of Sexual Homicide in Canada:  Implications for Police Investigation
This study examines cases of sexual homicide in Canada over the past 62 years.  Data was obtained from the RCMP database of solved and unsolved sexual homicide cases.  The study examines offender and victim characteristics, victim targeting and access, and modus operandi.  The results of the study may help police in investigating these crimes.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

A systematic review on the effectiveness of sex offender risk assessment tools in predicting sexual recidivism of adult male sex offenders
This 2013 study reviewed the effectiveness of risk assessment tools in predicting sexual recidivism of adult male offenders.  A total of 43 studies were examined and results indicated that all tools demonstrated at least moderate predictive accuracy with the Violence Risk Scale – Sexual Offender (VRS-SO) having the highest mean quality score.  However, the authors concluded that more independent high quality research is needed particularly on structured professional judgement incorporating dynamic risk factors. You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Nonfatal Strangulation, a Human Rights and Health Concern
This 2014 review paper examined 23 articles based on 11 self-reported surveys in 9 countries to estimate the prevalence of nonfatal strangulation in the context of intimate partner violence, describe key findings, and offer suggestions for future research.  Results indicated that past-year strangulation victimization rates ranged from 0.4% to 2.4% for women and lifetime victimization rates ranged from 3.0% to 9.7%.  Results also revealed that women were 2 to 4 times as likely as men to report strangulation by an intimate partner in the past year, a number that increased to 4 to 11 fold when looking at lifetime experience.  Prevalence data was also reviewed from a Canadian perspective.  The authors suggest that more research needs to be done in order to understand the prevalence, risks, and consequences of strangulation particularly in understudied communities in order to highlight this serious form of intimate partner violence and develop effective policies, programs, and interventions for prevention.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Assessing risk of patriarchal violence with honour as a motive: six years experience using the PATRIARCH checklist
This 2011 article describes the development of an evidence-based checklist, PATRIARCH, that has been used for six years in Sweden to help law enforcement and social authorities deal with cases that have suspected risk for honour-based violence.  Data from 56 cases are presented and discussed.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Canadian Council of Muslim Women Position on Femicide (not honour killing)
The Canadian Council of Muslim Women (CCMW) produced a position paper on using the term “honour killing” to describe the murder of women and girls.  The position of the CCMW is that all murders/killings should be identified as “femicide – the killing of women and girls simply because they are females.” The CCMW believes that using the term “honour killing” makes these murders appear exotic, foreign, and alien to Western culture indicating that Western culture is free from all forms of patriarchy; excludes Canadians who identify as being Western but also with non-European attributes of religion or ethnicity or race; encourages blatant racism; makes others defensive or apologetic about their culture or religion; uses cultural relativism to lessen the horror of the crimes and make the lives of these women less valued; ignores the issues of patriarchy, power and control over women; and justifies the actions of the perpetrator.

Canadian Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative (CDHPI)
The Canadian Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative (CDHPI) is an online information depository that features annual reports from domestic violence death review committees across Canada and internationally; public inquest reports; information and research on special topics related to domestic homicide such as risk assessment, risk management, and safety planning and issues around vulnerable populations (Aboriginal women and girls; children exposed to domestic violence; immigrant, refugee, and newcomers; rural, northern, and remote communities; and women with disAbilities and Deaf women); national, provincial, and international research on domestic homicide; and learning opportunities (e.g., how to implement a domestic violence death review committee).

Coercion in Intimate Partner Violence: Toward a New Conceptualization
This 2005 article use the social power model to conceptualize coercive control in intimate partner violence relationships.  Central elements of the model include: social ecology; setting the stage; coercion involving a demand and a credible threat for noncompliance; surveillance; delivery of threatened consequences; and the victim’s behavioural and emotional response to coercion.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Coercion in Intimate Partner Violence: Toward a New Conceptualization
This 2005 article use the social power model to conceptualize coercive control in intimate partner violence relationships.  Central elements of the model include: social ecology; setting the stage; coercion involving a demand and a credible threat for noncompliance; surveillance; delivery of threatened consequences; and the victim’s behavioural and emotional response to coercion.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Conceptualizing ‘Honour’ Killings in Canada:  An Extreme Form of Domestic Violence?
This 2014 paper examines the conceptualization of ‘honour’ killings in Canada demonstrating that these types of murders are best seen as falling under the broad spectrum of domestic violence rather than as a completely separate issue.

Culturally Driven Violence Against Women – A Growing Problem in Canada’s Immigrant Communities
This 2010 report examines some of the cultural factors that cause, promote and propagate the abuse of girls and women within South Asian immigrant households in Canada and recommends to the federal government policy options that would serve to blunt the effect of these detrimental and destructive cultural traditions.  The report also encourages a systemic acceleration of Canadianization with regard to values of gender equality.

Differences in the Characteristics of Intimate Femicides: The Role of Relationship State and Relationship Status
This 1998 study examines differences in the nature of intimate violence among intimate relationships that vary in the degree of intimacy and level of commitment. Findings indicate that the characteristics of the people involved in intimate femicides as well as the circumstances surrounding the killing differ by relationship type. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

“Do You Know What It Feels Like to Drown?”: Strangulation as Coercive Control in Intimate Relationships
This 2014 qualitative research study explored women’s experiences of, thoughts about, and reactions to being strangled by an intimate partner.  Many of the women felt that their partner used nonfatal strangulation as a way to exert power and control during an assault and to exert control beyond the assault.  The majority of women thought they were going to die during the incident.  The abusive partner would make threats (most often death threats) during the assault as well as accusations and directives.  Not surprisingly, the assault elicited immediate and lasting fear with these women and many of them became more fearful of their partner. Overall, the women felt that the assault was triggered by their partner feeling like he did not have control over her and that he was jealous, feared losing the relationship, and was upset that she wouldn’t comply with his demands.  This study shows how nonfatal strangulation is an effective coercive control tactic used to punish and hurt a woman for noncompliance and elicit lasting fear to exert and maintain power and control in the relationship. You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Harassment and Honour Based Violence (DASH, 2009) Risk Identification and Assessment and Management Model
The DASH (2009) model was developed by Laura Richards on behalf of the Association of Chief Police Officers and in partnership with Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse (CAADA) in the UK.  The purpose of the DASH model is to provide all police services and partner agencies across the UK with a common checklist for identifying and assessing risk of domestic abuse, stalking and honour based violence in order to provide appropriate risk management and safety planning.

Domestic Violence Handbook for Police and Crown Prosecutors in Alberta
This Handbook was originally developed in 2005 and updated in 2014 by the Alberta Justice and Solicitor General to help the criminal justice system more effectively address cases of domestic violence.  Topics include a definition of domestic violence; family violence initiatives in Alberta; what we know about domestic violence; understanding the abuser; understanding the victims; children exposed to family violence; Aboriginal victims of domestic violence; language barriers and immigration status; gay/lesbian/bisexual/transsexual victims of domestic violence; elder abuse; domestic violence and people who have a disability; relationship between animal (pet) abuse and family violence; safety planning for victims; domestic violence investigation guidelines for police services; gathering and documenting evidence; investigating criminal harassment; dominant aggressor/dual charging; strangulation/choking; primary risk factors for homicide; show cause hearings; best practices for crown prosecutors addressing victim’s issues; other court proceedings; firearms; and sentencing domestic violence cases.

Domestic Violence Toolkit for Health Care Providers in BC
This 2014 toolkit was developed as a student project for nursing at Kwantlen Polytechnic University and was supported by the Executive Director at the Provincial Office of Domestic Violence.  The toolkit provides an introduction to domestic violence (e.g., definition, prevalence data); an outline of domestic violence and healthcare providers such as why it is important for healthcare providers to know about domestic violence, recognizing and assessing for domestic violence, cultural considerations, and advocacy; and an understanding of legalities and documentation including confidentiality, reporting, and documentation.

Every Breath You Take: Erotic Asphyxiation, Vengeful Wives, and Other Enduring Myths in Spousal Sexual Assault Prosecutions
This 2012 article uses a case example to illuminate the problems that arise in spousal sexual assault prosecutions including the minimization of the harms of strangulation, the ability of defendants to appropriate bondage-discipline-domination-submission-sado-masochism (BDSM) practices to raise doubt as to consent and the continued reliance on a complainant’s sexual history evidence without more contextualizing information especially the defendant’s prior violence against the complainant.

Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2013
This report from Statistics Canada is the most current statistical profile on family violence in Canada.  The report provides an overview of family violence and specifically looks at intimate partner violence; family violence against children and youth; and family violence against seniors.

Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2011
This 2013 report from Statistics Canada provides a statistical profile on family violence in Canada in 2011.  The report provides an overview of family violence and specifically looks at family-related murder-suicides, intimate partner violence, family violence against children and youth, and family violence against seniors.

Femicide: A Global Issue that Demands Action
This 2013 report published by the Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS) Vienna Liaison Office is the result of a one-day symposium on femicide organized by ACUNS.  Participants included member state representatives, social scientists, NGO representatives, law enforcement officials, prosecutors and feminist activists.  Participants spoke about femicide, explained its meaning and causes including the different types, and presented best practices for prevention.

Forms of Femicide
This learning brief defines femicide and its various manifestations, including: intimate femicide, non-intimate femicide, murder of women and girls in the same of "honor", murder of women and girls because of their sexual orientation or gender identity, murder of Aboriginal women and girls because of their gender, female infanticide and gender-based sex-selective foeticide, genital mutilation related femicide, dowry-related femicide, organized crime related femicide, and the targeted killing of women in armed conflict.

Gendered Violence, Cultural Otherness, and Honour Crimes in Canadian National Logics
This 2013 article examines the official state and media interest in honour-based violence and crimes in Canada by analyzing the discursive strategies used to construct and disseminate discourses on this type of violence.

Global Burden of Armed Violence 2011: When the Victim is a Woman
The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development released the Global Burden of Armed Violence volume 2011 that draws on country-level data to examine both conflict-related and criminal violence.  The volume also assesses the links between violent death rates and socio-economic development.  Chapter Four of the report focuses on ‘femicide’ defined as the intentional killing of a woman.  The chapter disaggregates the demographics of armed violence and captures the ways in which women of different ages are at risk.

Honour Based Violence and Forced Marriage
Me Learning in the UK is a team that shares the belief that online training is an effective way to support those who work with vulnerable adults, children and young people.  Me Learning has provided an online training course (Honour Based Violence and Forced Marriage) to support anyone who works with children to recognize and respond to situations where abuse linked to ‘honour-based’ violence and forced marriage has occurred or may occur.  Topics include: understanding the community; what is forced marriage and honour based violence; the victims and perpetrators; barriers to change; and challenges for professionals.  There is a cost to obtaining the training.

Honour Based Violence Awareness Network (HBVA)
Honour Based Violence Awareness Network (HBVA) is an international digital resource centre that provides information, research, media articles, films, and training to advance the understanding of honour based violence and forced marriage.  HBVA promotes a network of experts, activists, and NGOs from across the globe in order to facilitate greater collaboration and highlight the work of activists on providing support to young women and men at risk.  Training includes video interviews, webinars, and presentations.

Honour For Women
The Multilingual Orientation Services Association for Immigrant Communities (MOSAIC) developed Honour for Women, a media awareness campaign on the issue of violence committed against women in the name of “honour.” The campaign contains posters, resource information, a webpage, and a public service announcement.  Resources, a literature review, and training tool for service providers are also available.  The purpose of the campaign is raise awareness of services available for women and girls and to assist service providers in enhancing their capacity to work more effectively with survivors of this type of violence.

‘Honour Killing’ in the Immigration Context: Multiculturalism and the Racialization of Violence against Women
This 2014 analyzes the uses of culture in public, policy, and legal approaches to honour killing.  The author argues that honour-related violence and honour killing should be understood as forms of gendered-based violence that affects all societies.  The article outlines social patterns associated with honour killing and policy efforts for prevention and protection in countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, and Britain highlighting the lack of policy approaches in Canada.  You can access the full article through the library system or through a paid membership account.

Intimate Femicide Followed by Suicide: Examining the Role of Premeditation
This 2005 study uses data on over 700 intimate femicides to examine the role of premeditation in instances of intimate femicide-suicide. Results indicate premeditation is more likely to occur in cases involving the offenders’ suicide, but that evidence of premeditation varies depending upon the type of suicidal killer. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Inventory of Spousal Violence Risk Assessment Tools Used in Canada
The Department of Justice Canada released a report on spousal violence risk assessment tools used in Canada.  The Department conducted a research project that identified all spousal violence risk assessment tools currently being used by criminal justice personnel in Canada.  The report provides the methodology of the project and the findings including a description of all tools, investigative checklists and protocols used in Canada.

Investigating Strangulation
The Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention provides an online strangulation training course on investigating strangulation for police officers.  The training is given by the Pennsylvania Virtual Training Network powered by Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police Association.  The training module provides tools and information on how to explain the dangers of strangulation to victims; how to recognize the signs and symptoms of strangulation; how to apply victim interview questions to the investigation; and how to identify and implement the actions to help victims.  The training module takes approximately 25 minutes to complete and is followed by a 10 question quiz.

Media Guide: Choking versus Strangulation
Jane Doe Inc. The Massachusetts Coalition Against Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence developed a guide to help the media understand the distinction between the terms “choking” and “strangulation” when describing this particular act of violence within a domestic violence context.  The guide states that using the accurate terminology to describe this type of assault is important to underscore the public health and public safety aspects of these crimes.  The guide states that using the term “strangulation”, as opposed to “choking”, increases the public’s familiarity with this type of violence; acknowledges the short and long-term consequences of this assault; reflects concern for both the victim’s experience and the public’s response to domestic violence; and reflects awareness that these acts were taken by a perpetrator and were not an accident as “choking” would suggest.

National Domestic Violence Fatality Review Initiative (NDVFRI)
The National Domestic Violence Fatality Review Initiative (NDVFRI) is an online resource centre housed at Northern Arizona University under the direction of Dr. Neil Websdale.  This online resource centre contains reports from domestic violence death review committees across the U.S.; statutes and executive orders for some states; sample confidentiality agreements and data collection tools for when conducting reviews; a map of domestic violence death review teams across the country; information about how to establish a domestic violence death review team; a video library with expert interviews and conference presentations; webinars; and information on upcoming conferences.  

New portrait of Canadian sexual murder
This 2013 report from the RCMP profiles the first study on Canadian sexual homicides.  The study examined solved and unsolved cases of sexual homicide committed between 1948 and 2010 that were entered into the RCMP database.  The study examined perpetrator and victim characteristics and the modus operandi of each homicide.

Non-fatal strangulation is an important risk factor for homicide of women
This 2008 research paper examined non-fatal strangulation by an intimate partner as a risk factor for major assault, or attempted or completed homicide of women.  Cases of homicides and attempted homicides were compared with cases of abused women using data obtained from the Danger Assessment.  Results indicated that non-fatal strangulation was reported in 10% of cases of abused women, 45% of attempted homicides, and 43% of homicides.  Prior non-fatal strangulation increased the odds six-fold for an attempted homicide and over seven-fold for a completed homicide.  These results indicate that non-fatal strangulation is an important risk factor for homicide of women by an intimate partner and underscores the need to assess for non-fatal strangulation with abused women attending emergency departments.

Ontario Femicide List, 2014
In 2014, the Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses (OAITH), in partnership with the University of Guelph, Sociology and Anthropology Department, published a Femicide List of the 29 women and children killed as a result of gender-based violence in Ontario between November 2013 and November 2014. Sources accessed to generate the list include databases, individual media websites and OAITH Member Organizations. You can also see the Femicide List for 2013; 2012; and 201Ontario

Ontairo Domestic Violence Death Review Committee
The Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee (DVDRC) was established in 2002 in response to recommendations from two major public inquests into the domestic homicides of Arlene May and Gillian Hadley by their former male intimate partners.  The purpose of the committee is to assist the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario in investigating and reviewing deaths that occur in the context of intimate partner violence and form recommendations to help prevent similar tragedies from occurring in the future.  The DVDRC publishes an annual report that highlights statistics on domestic homicide in the province, outlines cases reviewed by the committee and recommendations that came out of the review, and highlights any major themes around education, intervention and prevention.  To date, the DVDRC has published 10 annual reports. (definitions/incidence/prevalence & interventions and prevention)

2003 Annual Report 2006 Annual Report 2009 Annual Report 2012 Annual Report
2004 Annual Report 2007 Annual Report 2010 Annual Report  
2005 Annual Report 2008 Annual Report 2011 Annual Report

Preliminary Examination of so-called “Honour Killing” in Canada
This 2010 report from the Department of Justice Canada examines “honour killing.”  Specifically, the report defines “honour killing” and where it occurs, examines incidents in Canada, and looks at the psychopathology involved in this type of violence.  Topics include:  apparent modern-day incidence outside of Canada; apparent modern-day incidence in Canada; historical context – origins of “honour killings”; “honour killing” worldwide; “honour killing” in countries with Islamic law; the psyche of the “honour” killer; profiles in “honour killings”; socio-cultural influences; and mental health and “honour killings”.

Report of the Criminal Section Working Group on Strangulation
The Canadian government established a working group, in response to the understanding that perpetrators of domestic violence often use strangulation against their victim, to look at the possibility of making a distinct offence of strangulation as a general intent offence, and to determine if existing provisions adequately address the seriousness and significance of this type of assault.  The working group examined 89 cases of criminal offences where strangulation was alleged and reviewed existing Canadian law and developments in United States law.  In 2006, the working group released a report (Report of the Criminal Section Working Group on Strangulation) on their findings and concluded:

  • The existing Canadian Criminal Code provisions adequately address the offence of strangulation and in some instances have higher maximum penalties than those provided by new enactments in the U.S.
  • A discrete offence of strangulation may help in documenting a prior history of this type of assault but does not justify the creation of a new offence.
  • Medical literature confirms that strangulation endangers the life of the victim and has very serious consequences and further education and training around investigating and prosecuting cases that involve strangulation will enhance the understanding of the risk strangulation poses and improve the prosecution of these offences.

Standards of Care – Ontario Network of Sexual Assault & Domestic Violence Treatment Centres
The Standards of Care guide developed by the Ontario Network of Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Treatment Centres helps to ensure that all sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centres provide the best health and forensic care for women, children and men who have experienced sexual assault or domestic violence.  The report outlines organizational/program standards; client care standards for emergency service, follow-up sexual assault and domestic violence program, and counselling services; and education and outreach.  Appendix D of the guide provides a Strangulation Assessment Form.

Strangulation, Domestic Violence and the Legal Response
This 2014 article discusses the risks and concerns associated with non-fatal strangulation and domestic violence and examines current legal responses in Australia, the U.S., and Canada.  Court files involving domestic violence protection orders were examined in order to view how strangulation allegations made by those applying for protection orders are responded to by police and courts in Australia.  The article concludes with a reflection on current policy and legislative approaches to non-fatal strangulation in Australia and suggestions for law reform.

Strangulation Identification: PEI Family Violence Prevention June, 2012 
This powerpoint presentation by Morag McLean RN from the Victorian Order of Nurses People in Crisis Program, outlines how healthcare professionals can identify and treat strangulation that occurred in the context of family violence.  The presentation defines strangulation, provides statistics of strangulation within intimate partner violence, lists the signs and symptoms of strangulation and why it is important to identify a victim, discusses children who witness strangulation, outlines the five strangulation questions, and how to advocate and refer victims.

Strengthening Understanding of Femicide: Using research to galvanize action and accountability
This report is an overview of a conference on femicide held in Washington, DC on April 14-16, 2008.  The conference was held by PATH, the Inter-American Alliance for the Prevention of Gender-based Violence, the Medical Research Council of South Africa, and the World Health Organization.  Activists, researchers, and forensic professionals from 13 countries came together to identify common ground for strengthening research and galvanizing global action to prevent femicide and end the impunity so often granted to perpetrators.  Topics include: a background and overview of femicide; current research on the prevalence of femicide; understanding the risk factors for femicide victimization and perpetration; and closing gaps and galvanizing action for accountability around all forms of femicide.

The Cost of ‘Lost’ Intimacy: The Effect of Relationship State on Criminal Justice Decision Making
This 2003 study examines whether the severity of sanctions differs between individuals convicted of killing their current partner and individuals convicted of killing a partner from whom they are estranged. Using Canadian cases of intimate femicide, this study finds that offenders who kill estranged partners are treated more severely than those who kill current partners. Potential explanations for this finding are discussed. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

The Identification, Care and Advocacy of Strangulation Victims – Information for Front Line Workers and Crisis Advocates
In 2012, the Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada provided a revised copy of the 2009 guide for the identification, care and advocacy of strangulation victims.  The guide was developed to assist front line workers and crisis advocates in responding to survivors of strangulation.  The guide provides information on the signs and symptoms of strangulation to help assist in identifying victims; guidelines for assessing and referring victims; questions to ask victims specific to strangulation; and information on lethality of strangulation, signs and symptoms and warning signs, and how to access a higher level of care that is to be communicated to victims.

The State of World Population 2000: Lives Together, Worlds Apart.  Men and Women in a Time of Change.
This 2000 report from the United Nations Population Fund highlights gender inequality across the globe and makes the case for brining gender inequality fully into the light and treating it as a matter of urgency affecting both human rights and development priorities.  Topics include: gender and health; violence against women and girls – a human rights and health priority; men, reproductive rights and gender equality; counting the cost of gender inequality; women’s rights are human rights; and working towards a better future.

To Specify or Single Out: Should We Use the Term “Honor Killing”?
This article presents both sides to the debate over using the term “honor killing.”  The author argues two main points: 1) “honor killing” exists as a specific form of violence against women but has specific characteristics that allow it to be in an unique category of violence and 2) many advocacy organizations believe the term “honor killings” to be a misleading label that is racist, xenophobic, and/or harmful to Muslim populations.

There is No Honour in Violence!
The Barbra Schlifer Clinic in partnership with the South Asian Legal Clinic (SALCO) developed a free online training course focused on increasing the safety of young women at risk or experiencing forced marriage and ‘honour’ related violence.  The training is survivor-informed and intended to help frontline workers provide effective support for women fleeing or currently living in a family violence situation that stems from ‘honour’.  The training is conducted through an online forum facilitated by an instructor.

Understanding and addressing violence against women: Femicide
This 2012 report from the World Health Organization is part of the series “Understanding and Addressing Violence Against Women.”  The Femicide report provides types and prevalence of femicide across the world; risk and protective factors; and approaches for ending femicide.

Violence Against Women: Health and Justice for Canadian Muslim Women
This 2014 publication by the Canadian Council of Muslim Women (CCMW) focuses on intimate partner violence, honour based violence (femicide), forced marriage, and female genital mutilation. These practices are analyzed within an international and Canadian context, and an outline of the Islamic perspective on violence against women is also provided.  The publication includes a community workshop presentation, a Muslim wheel of domestic violence, case studies, and fact sheets.

Walking the Path Together Tools: Danger Assessment Phase II
This 2014 from the Alberta Council of Women’s Shelters provides an overview of the Walking the Path Together project which involved making the Danger Assessment (DA) tool, developed by Dr. Jacquelyn Campbell, more culturally specific and acceptable for use with First Nations women.  The DA is a tool that helps predict a woman’s risk of being killed or almost killed by an intimate partner.  The tools has two parts: a calendar and a 20-item questionnaire.  This report provides an overview of the Walking the Path Together project, the Danger Assessment, and the development and implementation of a more culturally sensitive DA for First Nations women.

Woman Killing: Intimate Femicide in Ontario, 1974-1994
This 1994 paper reviews major findings from research on women killed by their intimate partners in Ontario. Between 1974 and 1994, killings by intimate partners accounted for between 63% and 76% of all women killed in Ontario. Trends in intimate femicide, characteristics of victims and offenders, circumstances of the killings, and criminal justice responses to offenders are examined. The article also discusses the gender-specific nature of intimate femicides and identifies ways in which intimate partner killings by males and females are distinctly different.