Intimate Partner Violence

Woman abuse, also referred to as intimate partner violence, family violence and domestic violence, is a serious social and health concern. Learn from statistics about its incidence and prevalence globally and in Canada and the gender and anti-oppression analysis used as the framework for understanding, responding to, and evaluating intervention and prevention initiatives. Review online research , evaluations and resources on myths and facts; the systemic factors creating vulnerabilities for Aboriginal women, women with disAbilities and Deaf women, GBTLQ and others; barriers to disclosing and accessing supports; the limitations of the criminal justice and family court responses; supportive responses to women; and effective training resources and public education campaigns.

Abuse of Older Women Webinar
Barbara MacQuarrie, Community Director of the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women & Children and Margaret MacPherson, Research Associate, Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women & Children, hosted this webinar on January 22nd, 2015.  They discussed the nature of abuse experienced by older women, barrier to reporting or seeking assistance, consequences of abuse to older women, the It's Not Right! Campaign.  Access the webinar recording, presentation slides, document to be reviewed, and videos used during the presentation.

Addressing Intimate Partner Violence, Reproductive and Sexual Coercion: A Guide for Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Reproductive Health Care Settings, Second Edition
This 2012 guide provides information and strategies for addressing reproductive and sexual coercion with patients seeking reproductive health care services.

Adult Safeguarding and Domestic Abuse – A Guide to Support Practitioners and Managers
This guide was commissioned by the Local Government Associated in the UK.  The purpose of the guide is to help practitioners and managers support people who have care and support needs, whose circumstances make them vulnerable, and who may also be victims of domestic violence.  Topics include: making the connections between adult safeguarding and domestic abuse; defining domestic abuse and identifying who needs safeguarding and how they link together; understanding the impact of domestic abuse; understanding why people remain in abusive relationships; working with people in vulnerable circumstances; mental capacity, adult safeguarding and domestic abuse; assessing and working with the risks of domestic abuse; working with perpetrators of domestic abuse; making safe enquiries and defensible decisions; using legal remedies and sanctions; what councils and organizations can do to support good practice; and resources and references.

Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience intimate partner abuse
This 2015 review assesses the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. Based on the evidence reviewed, intensive advocacy may improve short-term quality of life and reduce physical abuse one to two years after the intervention for women recruited from domestic violence shelters or refuges. Brief advocacy may provide small short-term mental health benefits and reduce abuse, particularly in pregnant women and for less severe abuse.

After She Leaves
Springtide Resources, in partnership with Luke’s Place Support and Resource Centre, developed online training for community workers supporting women who have experienced abuse and are involved in the family law system. This skill-based, self-directed training provides information on: safety strategies for court settings; writing affidavits; court documents and procedures; working with lawyers and other court officials; and safety and access issues to prepare for when the court process is complete. The eight module full training is open registration ($250 for full training or $50 for each single module training) that must be completed within eight weeks (two weeks access for single module training).

Allostasis and Allostatic Load: Woman Abuse and Chronic Illness
Learning Network Brief 13.
This Learning Brief describes the role that stress can play on long-term health, otherwise known as allostasis.  Allostasis is the adaptive response to stressful situations.  Stress hormones are released in our body to help us cope – a reaction typically referred to as the fight-or-flight response.  The inability to minimize or stop this bodily response to stress is referred to as allostatic load and can cause severe long-term health consequences.  A detailed description of allostasis and allostatic load are provided in the context of woman abuse. Click to view PlainText Version.

An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009
The Department of Justice Canada put out a report that outlines the estimated economic impact of spousal violence that occurred in Canada in 2009.  Using information from the police-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey 2 and the self-reported 2009 General Social Survey, the report estimates that the total economic impact of spousal violence in 2009 was $7.4 billion which amounts to $220 per Canadian.  The report provides an account of the costs for the criminal and civil justice systems and an analysis of the direct economic impact for primary victims (e.g., medical attention, lost wages, legal costs, mental health issues).

Attributing Selected Costs to Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of Women Who Have Left Abusive Partners: A Social Determinants of Health Approach
This study examined costs associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) for a sample of 309 Canadian women who left an abusive male partner.  Examining selected public- and private-sector expenditures attributable to violence, the total annual estimated costs of IPV per woman was $13,162.39 translating to a national annual cost of $6.9 billion for women aged 19-65 who have left abusive partners.  Results indicated that costs of IPV continue long after the woman has left the abusive partner.  A paper called for recognition in policy that leaving an abusive relationship does not coincide with ending violence.

Best Practices in Policing and LGBTQ Communities in Ontario
This 2013 report from the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police’s Diversity Committee outlines best practices on policing and LGBTQ communities in order to assist police services to develop inclusive workplaces for LGBTQ police personnel and develop and maintain relationships with members of the LGBTQ communities.  The report provides definitions/terminology and outlines different procedures and practices for policing certain situations that may occur within the LGBTQ communities such as hate crimes; intimate partner violence; sexual assault; and sex work.

Beyond Access: Toolkit for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response Into Education Projects
This 2015 toolkit was developed to support implementation of the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally. It provides guidance and resources for those working on education to increase understanding of GBV in the education context and strengthen integration of a gender-based violence (GBV) response into projects and activities. Because reducing school-related GBV is a high priority for USAID in all school systems globally, this toolkit includes school-related GBV, but the overall focus is GBV in the education context broadly.

Breaking the Links between poverty and violence against women: A Resource Guide
This guide was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada.  The purpose of the guide is to support the efforts of women’s groups, community organizations and service providers in helping low-income women take control of and deal with the poverty and violence in their lives and inspire others to take action.  The guide explores the ways in which poverty and violence are linked; describes strategies and initiatives of groups actively working with women experiencing poverty and violence; and highlights ways that services and programs can be adapted to meet the needs of low-income women experiencing violence.

British Columbia’s Provincial Domestic Violence Plan
This 2014 report outlines the three-year provincial plan to increase safety for individuals and communities by strengthening the systemic response to domestic violence in British Columbia.  The main principles of the plan are promoting safety; sharing responsibility; promoting integrated responses; being culturally relevant and respectful; and striving for continuous improvement.  The report was prepared by the Provincial Office of Domestic Violence in British Columbia.

Building a Bigger Wave 2011 Forum Report (2012)
On November 7 and 8, 2011, representatives from 42 Violence Against Women Coordinating Committees across the province got together to explore the possibility of developing a provincial network for coordinating committees.  The goals of the forum were to understand the history and the current state of VAWCCs in Ontario; display the great range of innovative work and projects of the VAWCCs; explore and discuss how to build a collaborative and inclusive provincial network; and identify the next steps in the network development.  At the end of the forum, there was a clear mandate to move to the next step in building the provincial network and a call-to-action to mobilize committees to support the “Sisters in Spirit” campaign to raise awareness of the high rates of violence against Aboriginal women and girls in Canada.

C.A.R.E. Handbook
This toolkit was developed by the BC/Yukon Society of Transition Houses in order to help transition houses develop feasible and sustainable programs that meet the complex needs of women leaving abusive relationships with their companion animals.  Topics include: the link between family violence and animal abuse; making connections with local agencies/veterinarians; pet foster programs; on-site shelters for companion animals; maintaining confidentiality; potential costs to transition houses; animal stress; pets and rental housing; health and safety issues; legal issues; sample forms; successful pet programs; and resources.

Call into the night: An overview of violence against Aboriginal women.
Interim report. Standing Committee on the Status of Women (2011)
This report summarizes information from Aboriginal organizations (e.g., women’s shelters; friendship centres), government departments, service providers, academics, and Aboriginal women themselves on the prevalence and nature of violence against Aboriginal women. The report provides recommendations for intervention and prevention developed by the Standing Committee on the Status of Women in collaboration with Aboriginal women.

Canada’s Shelters for Abused Women, 2003/04
Andrea Taylor-Butts (2005)
This article/research presents a profile of shelters providing residential services to abused women and their children across Canada in 2003/04. Additionally, through the use of a snapshot day (April 14, 2004), selected characteristics of the women and children using these facilities are presented. Data for this article come primarily from the Transition Home Survey (THS).

Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses
The Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses was established in 2009 with the purpose of providing a national forum for which provincial, territorial, regional, and Aboriginal organizations that represented women’s shelters and transition houses across the country could come together, learn from each other, share resources and present a unified voice. Through collaborative efforts, the network conducts innovative research and promotes promising practices with the goal of ending violence against women.

Change the Story: A Shared Framework for the Primary Prevention of Violence against Women and their Children in Australia
This 2015 National Framework to Prevent Violence against Women and their Children brings together the international research, and nationwide experience, on what works to prevent violence. It establishes a shared understanding of the evidence and principles of effective prevention, and presents a way forward for a coordinated national approach.

Conducting Interviews with Survivors of Sexual & Gender Based Violence
This 2013 video series includes first-hand experience from trainees, experts, leading activists and survivors expanding on: considerations for filming, creating appropriate questions, safety & security, interviewing techniques and the effects of trauma on survivors.

Community Guide for Preventing Violence Against Women
This guide from the Ministry of Community Services in BC was developed after the Community Action for Women’s Safety Symposium in Vancouver, BC.  In September 2006, the symposium brought together 63 violence-prevention organizations across BC to share knowledge, experience and ideas about how community-based projects can prevent violence against women.  Some of the organizations that participated had implemented projects in this area of work and received grant funding and others had not.  This guide is a snapshot of the 2006 Community Action for Women’s Safety Grants, the worked performed, outcomes, successes achieved and best practices in order to provide the next step in helping communities learn from each other in how to implement a project to prevent violence against women.

Community Guide to End Violence Against Aboriginal Women
This guide was developed in 2011 by the Ontario Native Women’s Association (ONWA) to provide culturally relevant resources to address violence and its impact on Aboriginal women and to provide promising practices to end violence against Aboriginal women.  Topics include a historical context and traditional roles of Aboriginal women; describing violence and signs of a healthy relationship; best practices for preventing violence such as the Medicine Wheel and the Seven Grandfather Teachings; community approaches to violence prevention; and a list of community resources.

Competencies Needed by Health Professionals for Addressing Exposure to Violence and Abuse in Patient Care
These 2011 core competencies were developed to help ensure that all health care professionals have a solid understanding of violence and abuse and gain the skills and confidence to work with patients, clients, colleagues and health care systems in order to respond.

Considering the Differences: Intimate Partner Sexual Violence in Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Discourse
A systematic response to intimate partner sexual violence is one that involves all levels of advocacy, legal, and political realms. The articles within this 2008 publication illustrate the complexities of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV), while painting a picture of that systematic response. By capturing the voices of survivors, advocates and legal leaders in this movement to end violence against women, this publication will inspire you to look beyond traditional paths of service delivery, dig deeper into the root causes of intimate partner sexual violence, and expand your outreach to survivors. Additionally, it provides a screening resource tool for thought provocation and implementation support.

Core Competencies for Domestic Violence Training
A series of core competencies for domestic violence training were developed through the Knowledge Exchange: Workshop on Domestic Violence Training.  Workshop participants discussed their VAW training projects and offer lessons learned regarding program delivery and evaluation in a series of video interviews.

Developing a Gender Equity and/or Prevention of Violence against Women Organizational Policy
This 2016 resource, developed by Women’s Health West (Australia), is a tool to assist organizations in creating an organizational policy to prevent violence against women and promote gender equity. It contains background information regarding gender equity and violence against women, and includes sample policy templates that organisations can draw upon in the development of organisational policies and procedures.

Distance Learning for Dental Hygienists (2010-2012)
Springtide Resources
partnered with the Ontario Dental Hygienists' Association to offer training to members on responding to woman abuse. Dental hygienists interested in learning about woman abuse are invited to participate in this online training, "Detect, Respond, Refer: Helping to End Woman Abuse." This final product of the project was designed with the support of an advisory committee of dental hygienists and shelter workers. It is available to both ODHA members and non-members.

Domestic Violence Curriculum for Law Schools
The LCO received a grant from the Ontario Women's Directorate to develop law school curriculum modules on violence against women. The objective was to develop modules that are flexible enough that law schools that wish to use them are able to include them in existing courses, offer them as an intensive course or combine them into a full course. The modules go beyond the most obvious courses, with a view to ensuring that law students receive some training in this area, regardless of the area of law in which they will practice. The preparation of the modules builds on similar curricula developed for the National Judicial Institute and prepared in the past for law schools, as well as work done elsewhere. The LCO retained Pamela Cross, an expert on violence against women who has also assisted in the development of curricula for the NJI and Legal Aid, as the Project Director. The initiative had the benefit of an Advisory Group composed of members with a range of expertise in violence against women, including faculty members from all the Ontario law schools.

Domestic Violence Death Review Committee
The Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee (DVDRC) was established in 2002 in response to recommendations that arose from two major inquests into the domestic homicides of Arlene May and Gillian Hadley by their former male partners. The purpose of the committee is to assist the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario in investigating and reviewing deaths that occur in the context of domestic violence and form recommendations to help prevent similar tragedies in the future. Since its establishment, the Ontario DVDRC has published nine annual reports.

2003 Annual Report

2006 Annual Report

2009 Annual Report

2012 Annual Report

2004 Annual Report

2007 Annual Report

2010 Annual Report

2013-2014
Annual Report

2005 Annual Report

2008 Annual Report

2011 Annual Report

Domestic Violence Death Review Committee: 2011 Annual Report
Office of the Chief Coroner (2012)
The Domestic Violence Death Review Committee (DVDRC) of Ontario assists the Office of the Chief Coroner in reviewing deaths that occur in the context of domestic violence and forming recommendations to help prevent similar tragedies in the future. The committee was first formed in 2002 in response to two major coroner’s inquests into the deaths of Arlene May and Gillian Hadley by their intimate partners. The 2011 annual report provides an overview of the committee; a statistical analysis of cases; case reviews and recommendations; information on domestic homicide cases in Aboriginal communities; and gender and domestic violence.

Domestic Violence Death Review Committee: 2012 Annual Report
The 2012 annual report of the Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee (DVDRC) was released to mark the 10th anniversary of the committee.  It summarizes the 164 domestic homicide cases reviewed by the committee since its inception including the 20 cases reviewed in 2012.  One significant issue identified in this year's report is domestic homicide among older adults (over 65 years of age).  Chapter four of the report provides an overview of trends relating to risk factors and general themes of recommendations that have emerged over the past ten years.  The Ontario DVDRC is committed to reviewing and understanding deaths that occur in the context of domestic violence in order to prevent similar tragedies from occurring in the future.

Domestic Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities - Trainers Manual
This training manual was developed by the New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence to assist practitioners in recognizing domestic violence in LGBT relationships; understanding how gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, heterosexism, homophobia and transphobia can be used as weapons of control; recognizing the risks to LGBT victims, particularly with victims of colour; professionally facilitating disclosures of abuse by LGBT clients; and providing appropriate referrals, information, and resources.  There are six modules within the training manual:  1) introduction and curriculum overview; 2) examining assumptions which includes defining terms and examining privilege; 3) introduction to LGBT domestic violence such as defining and understanding domestic violence within the LGBT communities; 4) myths and realities of domestic violence within the LGBT communities; 5) identifying domestic violence in LGBT relationships; and 6) attending to victim safety.  The curriculum also includes a participant’s manual: Domestic Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities - Participants Manual

Domestic Violence Risk Assessment and Management
An online course developed by the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women & Children for health care, social service and education professionals to develop skills and awareness regarding domestic violence risk factors, determining the need for a risk assessment, the importance of communication and collaboration regarding risk assessment and risk management.

Effect of domestic violence training: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials
This 2014 research article in the Canadian Family Physician journal examined studies on the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women.  Results indicated that brief interventions for postgraduate trainee physicians improved knowledge but did not affect behaviour; online education using a problem-based learning format improved practising physicians’ perceptions, knowledge, and skills in managing domestic violence; and training combined with system support interventions seemed to benefit domestic violence victims and increase referrals to support resources.

Empowering Women - Empowering Humanity: Picture It!
The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women launched a year-long campaign in honour of the 20th anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995.  The campaign features monthly mini-campaigns that include facts, stories, quizzes, audiovisual and social media content focusing on a subtheme of gender equality.  Starting in June 2014, topics covered include Women and the Environment, Women in Power and Decision-making, and this month’s the Girl Child.  Other topics that will be rolled out throughout the year campaign include Women and the Economy; Women and Poverty; Violence Against Women; Human Rights of Women; Education and Training of Women; Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women; Women and Health; Women and the Media; and Women and Armed Conflict.

Empowerment and Employability:  Using empowerment activities to support women who have been affected by violence to improve their employability
This manual shares best practices for empowering women who have experienced violence to help them improve their employability.  The best practices were identified from ten transition and safe houses in Newfoundland and Labrador in 2011 to 2012.  The manual discusses what kind of empowerment activities to hold and examines specific empowerment groups.  The manual was developed by the Transition House Association of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Ending Violence against Aboriginal Women and Girls: A New Beginning
The Standing Committee on the Status of Women released its final report, “Ending Violence against Aboriginal Women and Girls: A New Beginning.” The report is based on a study initiated by the committee in 2009 that included hearings in Ottawa and in 14 communities across the country where over 150 witnesses, mostly Aboriginal women, shed light on the very high rates of violence against Aboriginal women and girls in Canada.  This final report builds on the interim report of the committee, “A Call into the Night: An Overview of Violence Against Aboriginal Women.”  The final report highlights issues of Aboriginal poverty, property and economic growth; missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls; community safety including policing, access to justice, housing and shelter; and family violence prevention and healing such as residential schools and their aftermath and child welfare.  Recommendations for intervention and prevention are listed.  James Anaya, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights of Indigenous peoples, called for a public inquiry into the missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls across the country after a fact-finding visit to Canada in October 2013.  Read Mr. Anaya’s statement upon conclusion of the visit to Canada.

Evaluating Violence Against Women Training Initiatives: A Primer (2012)
Ryan Broll, Claire Crooks, Linda Baker, Anna-Lee Straatman
This report briefly describes the purpose of evaluations followed by the review of current evaluation literature on the effectiveness of VAW training initiatives. The report outlines the types and levels of evaluation, importance of logic models - including examples and guides on developing them, common evaluation challenges, and critical steps to consider when conducting an evaluation of VAW training programs.

Fact Sheet: Violence Against Women in Canada
This fact sheet on violence against women in Canada was developed by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.  The fact sheet discusses violence against women as a human rights issue and outlines prevalence data; information on contexts and contributing factors including the impacts of violence against women and barriers to seeking help; responses to address violence against women; and prevention strategies within a Canadian context.

Family Violence and Homelessness: A Review of the Literature
Sylvia Novac (2006)
This review summarizes research, published between 1987 and 2002, on the relationship between family violence and homelessness. Topics include defining family violence and homelessness; measuring homelessness in the context of family violence; reviewing the associations between family violence and homelessness; understanding the dynamics of the relationship between family violence and homelessness; suggestions for service provision; and identifying gaps in research.

Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2010
Statistics Canada (2012)
The "Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile" reports on the prevalence and nature of family violence in Canada during 2010 using police-reported data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and Homicide Survey, and self-reported data from the General Social Survey on Victimization. Family violence includes violence against intimate partners, children and youth, and/or seniors. The purpose of this research is to inform the public of the risk factors associated with family violence and to inform intervention and prevention policies and programs.

Gender Differences in Police-reported Violent Crime in Canada, 2008
Roxan Vaillancourt (2010)
This report examines gender differences in violent victimization using police-reported data from the 2008 Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2). Gender differences with prevalence rates, age when victimized, characteristics of the perpetrator, and types of violence (i.e., physical assaults; sexual assaults; homicides; robbery; harassment; and threats) are summarized.

Getting Out and Staying Out: Issues Surrounding a Woman’s Ability to Remain Out of an Abusive Relationship
This study examines the issues that surround a woman’s ability to leave and remain out of an abusive relationship and the influence nurses have on women both during and after the separating process.  The results of the study indicate that there is an ongoing need to advocate and assist women leaving and remaining out of an abusive relationship and system-wide policies, such as universal screening, need to be introduced in order to help nurses care for women who are experiencing violence.

Handbook on Effective Police Responses to Violence Against Women
This handbook was developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2010 as part of the Criminal Justice Handbook Series.  The purpose of the handbook is to assist and guide police officers in the prevention of, and response to, violence against women.  Topics include setting the context; particularly vulnerable women; misconceptions about domestic violence; justice system responses and victim protection; international norms and standards; factors underlying violence against women; preventive approaches; the role of the police in responding to violence against women; procedural law; and inter-agency collaboration and support.

Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: A clinical handbook
This 2014 handbook published by the World Health Organization offers easy steps and suggestions to help health-care providers assist women who have been subjected to violence. The handbook has four parts: 1) awareness about violence against women; 2) first-line support for intimate partner violence and sexual assault; 3) additional clinical care after sexual assault; 4) additional support for mental health. There are job aids throughout this handbook to help you while caring for and supporting a woman who has experienced or is experiencing violence. The guidelines on which this handbook is based do not directly address young women (under age 18) or men. Nonetheless, many of the suggestions for care may be applicable to young women or to men.

Healthy Families Healthy Nations Domestic Violence Training for Professionals and Service Providers
Created by Equay-wuk, this domestic violence training resource is designed for service providers supporting Aboriginal women in remote First Nations communities.  Within the overarching theme of "working towards violence free communities",  this training resource is designed to increase awareness of the need for community leaders to commit to violence free communities, how the cycle of abuse impacts family and community, early warning signs, exploring avenues for culturally sensitive prevention, the need to eliminate ostracism of victims, how service providers can contribute to the holistic prevention model, occupational roles, responsibilities and on-the-job policies, procedures and practices for responding to domestic violence, options for improving organizational practices, available services, and increasing support for women and children.  Pamphlets are provided in English, Ojibway and Oji-Cree.

Implications of the Shrinking Space for Feminist Ant-Violence Advocacy
This discussion paper examines the impact of corporatization on feminists and feminist organizations in Canada, specifically looking at the deterrence from the important role in advancing structural social change.  Topics include: the restrictive interpretation of charitable activities; severe cuts to health and social programs; the blurring of public and private funding strategies; and the conversion of social perception about the value of civil versus corporate influence on governance.

Intersections of Violence Against Women and Militarism
The Center for Women’s Global Leadership held a meeting in June 2011 that brought together 30 feminist activists, academics and experts from around the world to identify and explore feminist perspectives of militarism; examine the intersections between militarism and violence against women; and develop global feminist strategies to challenge militarism.  This report outlines the discussion and the two broad strategies suggested to address violence against women and militarism: conducting a global campaign to define human security and linking the results to analyses of government budgets to better illustrate gaps between the ways in which civilians define security and state security.

Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: Sexual Assault in the Context of Domestic Violence
This 2009 publication from the Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs examines intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV), a comprehensive term that includes not only marital rape, but all other forms of sexual assault that take place within a current or former intimate relationship, whether the partners are married or not. This publication was developed in the context of the innovative statewide and national approach to IPSV that is emerging from the collaborative work of project partners. First published as an edition of the Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs' quarterly newsletter, Connections, this compilation of articles represents a wide spectrum of information and practical advice for assessment, intervention, and systems change.

Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto
This 2015 paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Intimate Partner Violence and Lifetime Trauma
This 2011 article reviews available research exploring the link between histories of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and IPV victimization in adulthood.

Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Victimization Assessment Instruments for Use in Healthcare Settings
This guide, developed by the Centers for Disease Control, is a compilation of current existing tools used to assess intimate partner violence and sexual violence victimization in clinical/healthcare settings.  The purpose of the document is to provide practitioners with the most current inventory of tools and to provide information on each tool to help inform decisions about which ones are most appropriate to use with a given population.

Intimate Partner Violence Survivors: Exploring Relational Resilience to Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences of Abuse by Previous Partners
This 2016 article focuses on relational resilience of intimate partner violence survivors who are in new relationships with non-violent partners. Interviews were conducted with 11 participants and analyzed using Grounded Theory. The goal of the research was to explore the process of moving from violent to non-violent relationships, and how survivors of violent relationships experienced their own relational resilience. The resulting data and theory are reviewed in this article. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

IPSV Support Group: A Guide to Psychoeducational Support Groups for Survivors of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence
This 2009 guide provides information specifically relevant to psychoeducational groups that are to be run according to the guidelines provided by the Office of Crime Victims Advocacy for community sexual assault programs in the State of Washington. The goal of this supplemental Guide is to encourage support groups where survivors of intimate partner sexual violence can feel welcomed, included, and supported.

IPSV Train-the-Trainer Kit
This 2009 curriculum is designed to be used and adapted for a variety of audiences regarding intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV). Because IPSV involves both domestic violence and sexual assault, victims’ needs may not be fully addressed by services focusing on one or the other of these issues. While the training was designed for victim advocates, it should be of use to any professional who may encounter people affected by IPSV. Some information in the presentation can also be adapted for use with community audiences. The curriculum includes a powerpoint and guide covering forms of IPSV, risk factors, frequency, lethality, survivors, impacts, culturaly considerations, challenges for the advocate, and resources.

It shouldn't be this hard. Learning Network Brief (1)
Commentary by Pamela Cross for Luke's Place Support and Resource Centre for Women and Children (December 2012)
Based on the extensive research report titled "It Shouldn't be this Hard: A gender based analysis of family law, family court and violence against women", Pamela Cross has prepared a 4 page commentary on the challenges women leaving abusive partners face when turning to the family law and family court.

It shouldn’t be this hard: A gender-based analysis of family law, family court and violence against women.
Pamela Cross (2012)
This paper uses a gender-based intersectional analysis to examine family law and the family court system in Ontario when dealing with women, and their children, who have experienced violence. The purpose of this paper is to help frontline workers assist women involved with the family court, help women navigate through the family court system, and provide the violence against women sector with tools needed to implement change. The paper outlines what is included in family law; the family court process; other areas of law that can be related to family law (i.e., criminal and immigration law); violence against women policy initiatives developed in Ontario; other provincial polices related to violence against women (i.e., social assistance and housing); key issues that are important to know for women experiencing violence and who are involved with the family court; family law in other countries; and promising practices when working within a flawed system.

It Takes A Village, People!  Advocacy, Friends and Family, & LGBT Survivors of Abuse
The Northwest Network of Bi, Trans, Lesbian, and Gay Survivors of Abuse in Seattle, WA put out this toolkit in 2013 to help advocates, friends, and family provide support and safety for LGBT survivors of intimate partner violence.  The basic principles used are: keep survivor self-determination in the forefront; safety for everyone involved is important; there are no “one size fits all” answers – evaluate the possible consequences of strategies in specific situations; and know how to respond to homophobia and transphobia.

Keeping Children & Mothers Safe and Engaging Men who use Abusive Behaviours: VAW and CAS Collaboration.
The Learning Network hosted a Forum on September 19, 2013 on VAW and CAS collaboration.  The focus was on keeping children and mothers safe and engaging men who use abusive behaviours.  The learning objectives included: understanding the issue within a gender-based analysis; identifying principles and practice strategies for engaging men who use violence; identifying risk factors and potential assessment tools for evaluating child risk in the context of domestic violence; and identifying promising practices in VAW and CAS collaboration.

Making the Connection: Intimate Partner Violence and Public Health
This 2010 PowerPoint training and education tool from Futures Without Violence includes the most recent data and promising practices on the health impact of violence on maternal child health, mental health, injury prevention, children and adolescents, and more. Over 300 slides present compelling data, national resources, and program and policy recommendations along with photos and graphics to engage diverse audiences.  The tool is divided into downloadable chapters and includes a compendium listing the full citations for each chapter.  Presenters may pick and choose which slides to include in trainings, and reference “speaker’s notes” to strengthen presentations. 

Making Connections: When Domestic Violence, Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems Co-Occur
Making Connections is a training program on the intersections of domestic violence with mental health and substance use problems.  The program contains a text-based manual, online training modules, an on-site workshop, and a discussion forum that provides an introduction to these issues and concrete tools to help professionals work with women experiencing these complex problems.  The online component contains six interactive modules that can be used with the text manual or on their own; however it is recommended that the manual be used in tandem with the respective online modules.  The online training component also contains a discussion room to pose and answer questions and share resources and ideas.  New users will need to register for the online training.  A contact person is provided to learn about hosting or participating in an accompanying workshop in your community.

Making the Peace: An Approach to Preventing Relationship Violence Among Youth
This curriculum is designed for youth, educators, parents, women/youth advocacy agencies, criminal justice personnel and community members to help prevent violence against women among youth ages 14-19.  The curriculum includes a manual, teachers’ guide, 15-session curriculum, and handouts.  The overall goal of the curriculum is to reduce and prevent violence against women (specifically domestic and dating violence) within urban schools.  Adults and young people are trained to design and implement dating violence prevention campaigns that would reach all students.

Measuring violence against women: Statistical trends
Statistics Canada (Feb 25, 2013).
The report includes: prevalence and severity of violence against women; risk factors for violence against women; impact of violence against women; and responses to violence against women. In an effort to provide a comprehensive and accurate picture of the extent and nature of violence against women, a combination of police-reported crime data and self-reported victimization data has been used. The introduction to this article notes that while efforts were made to use a variety of sources, each source has its own benefits and limitations.

Men’s Accountability from Two Voices
Kate Wiggins, Tim Kelly, Lisa Heslop (Conference Presentation) (2012).
Victims of domestic violence are safer when their partners are provided with support to target those dynamic risk factors which contribute to creating heightened risk. Results of a pilot project are presented and a number of risk management strategies are suggested.

Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview
In 2013, the RCMP initiated a study of reported incidents of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls across all police jurisdictions in Canada.  Results from the report revealed a total of 1,181 police-recorded incidents of Aboriginal female homicides (1,017) and unresolved missing Aboriginal females (164) and 225 unsolved cases of either missing or murdered Aboriginal females in Canada.  There were similarities within the homicide cases such as most were committed by men and most of the victims knew the perpetrator.  The report concludes that the total number of murdered and missing Aboriginal women and girls far exceeds previous public estimates.  The RCMP intends to work with the originating agencies responsible for the data to release as much as possible to stakeholders and to make information more widely available.

Mobilizing Religious Communities to Respond to Gender-Based Violence and HIV: A Training Manual
Futures Group and Religions for Peace developed a training manual to raise awareness and address the issue of gender-based violence and HIV amongst religious leaders.  The training takes place over three days.  Topics include: identifying different types, causes, and consequences of gender-based violence; understanding the link between gender-based violence and HIV; identifying approaches for addressing gender-based violence through religious organizations, institutions, and/or communities; and starting a dialogue on how religious leaders and women leaders of faith can mainstream gender-based violence into faith-based interventions.

Moving On – A Practical Guide for Women Leaving a Relationship (2013 Edition)
This document was developed by the PEI Advisory Council on the Status of Women to provide information to help a woman safely leave an abusive relationship.  Topics include: knowing and understanding your rights and the rights of your children; spousal support; Aboriginal women’s property rights; information for immigrants and newcomers to Canada; gathering important documents; finding a place to live; telling your spouse and children you are leaving; mediation and collaborative practice; harassment and stalking; and making an emergency plan.  This guide can be applied to both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships.

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report
Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick, Jieru Chen & Mark R. Stevens (2011).
This report summarizes the results from a 2010 national survey that collected information on experiences of sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence among women and men across the U.S. The report outlines the background and methodology of the survey and summarizes the data collected regarding each type of violence (e.g., prevalence; perpetrator characteristics; victim characteristics). The report provides national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates and breaks down lifetime prevalence rates by state. Implications for prevention are discussed.

National Research Agenda to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children 2010-2022 – Australia
This 2014 report from Australia’s National Research Organization for Women’s Safety to Reduce Violence against Women & their Children outlines a long-term agenda to improve the safety of all Australian women and their children.  Research priorities fall under four themes: experience and impacts (e.g., prevalence; reporting; intersectionality; impacts); gender inequality and primary prevention (e.g., gendered nature of violence against women; designing, evaluating, and monitoring primary prevention programs); service responses and interventions (e.g., service responses to victims; interventions targeting men who use violence); and systems (e.g., criminal justice and legal systems; integrated responses; policy).  The goals of the research agenda are to create communities safe and free from violence; ensure relationships are respectful; strengthen Indigenous communities; provide services that meet the needs of women and their children experiencing violence; create effective justice responses; and hold perpetrators accountable for their actions and make them stop their use of violence.

National Strategy on Domestic, Sexual and Gender-based Violence 2010-2014
This report describes the national strategy to address domestic, sexual and gender-based violence in Ireland starting in early 2010 to the end of 2014.  Part one of the report presents the problem of gender-based violence by introducing the national strategy; describing domestic and sexual violence; and outlining current interventions across the country.  Part two of the report outlines the challenges to progress and actions to tackle the problem more effectively through primary and secondary interventions and policy and service planning.  The final chapter of the report describes the strategy implementation and the plan for a comprehensive review.

OACAS Woman Abuse and Intersection with CAS
Ruth Harper, the Provincial Trainer for the Ontario Association of Children's Aid Societies (OACAS), discusses a new training initiative provided by the OACAS that focuses on woman abuse and how it intersects with child protection issues.  The training is directed to child welfare staff across the province of Ontario.  Ruth discusses the context of the training including engaging men who use abusive behaviours in their intimate relationships; the impact of the training initiative, feedback received, advice on providing and implementing training initiatives, and the sustainability of the OACAS initiative.

Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses (OAITH)
OAITH is a coalition of women shelters, second stage housing programs, and community organizations that serve women and children. The coalition was first established in 1977 with the purpose of educating the public about woman abuse and advocating for social change. OAITH has created two internal committees that focus on advocating for social justice and equality for women (Anti-Racism/Anit-Oppression Committee) and promoting education and training in member women shelters across the province (Member Education and Training Committee).

Ontario Association of Interval and Transition Houses (OAITH) Femicide List 2013
This is a list of women in Ontario who were murdered in 2013 as a result of gender-based violence.  A number of media sources were used to identify these women including The Toronto Star, CVC, CTV News, the Toronto Sun, the Huffington Post, smaller community newspapers and other internet sources.  This document was created in partnership with Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses and a fourth year sociology class with Professor Mavis Morton at the University of Guelph.  If any women are missing from this list, please contact OAITH at 416-977-6619 ext. 2 or susan@oaith.ca.

Ontario Shelter Research Project
The project team was composed of four shelters directors: Michele Hansen, Huron Women’s Shelter, Linda Ense, Hamilton Native Women’s Centre, Clare Freeman, Interval House of Hamilton; Kate Wiggins, Women’s Community House in London; three university-based researchers from Western University: Drs. Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Roma Harris and Nadine Wathen; and Barb MacQuarrie, Community Director of the Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.

Ontario Shelter Research Project (2011).  An evaluation of shelters as service navigation hubs for abused women: A community-based project funded by the Ontario Trillium Foundation.
The Ontario Shelter Research Project invited Executive Directors of all English-language Ontario women’s shelters to participate in a survey regarding the range of services and system linkage/navigation functions provided by shelters to their clients.  A total of 56 interviews, and 12 self-completed online surveys, were completed.  This report provides a summary of these interviews and surveys in terms of general shelter information; in-shelter and community services; general services and programs offered; networking; barriers to services; and work-in-progress and the next steps.

Ontario Woman Abuse Screening Project
The Ontario Woman Abuse Screening Project is engaging regions throughout Ontario in collaborating across sectors to implement screening for woman abuse, sexual assault and trauma in mental health and addiction agencies. Workers in these sectors will be trained to provide woman abuse-informed/ sexual assault-informed/ trauma-informed services. In the woman abuse and sexual assault sectors, staff will be cross-trained to provide mental health-informed and addictions-informed services to abused women dealing with mental health and/or addiction issues.

Open Minds Open Doors – Transforming Domestic Violence Programs to Include LGBTQ Survivors
This manual was created by The Network/La Red in 2010 to assist organizations in making domestic violence programs more LGBTQ-inclusive.  Chapters include: introduction including choices in language; why become LGBTQ-inclusive; understanding LGBTQ communities; learning about LGBTQ partner abuse; getting started; assessment; LGBTQ education and training; collaboration with LGBTQ and Ally organizations; personnel policies; creating a welcoming environment for LGBTQ survivors; direct service practices (advocacy, legal advocacy, shelter, support group); outreach and media; reflection and feedback; cases studies; and resources.  Each chapter offers ideas for implementation.

Paramedic Response to Violence Against Women
The Sunnybrook – Osler Centre for Prehospital Care has developed online training for emergency first responders. The first initiative, the "Paramedic Response to Violence Against Women" is available to paramedics and paramedic students in community colleges across Ontario. With the support of the Association of Municipal Emergency Medical Services Ontario (AMEMSO), the training provides a realistic experience and practical skills to better identify, respond and support suspected victims.

Patterns and Predictors of Service Use among Women Who Have Separated from an Abusive Partner
This 2015 document is an analysis of data from a study of 309 Canadian women separated from an abusive partner to examine their use of services. Services studied included general health services, mental health services, social services, violence-specific services, and legal services. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Perpetrator interventions in Australia: Part one – Literature review.
This 2015 paper from Australia’s National Research Organization for Women’s Safety identifies the current state of knowledge on Australian perpetrator interventions for sexual assault and family/domestic violence. Within the discussion of each type of violence, family/domestic violence and sexual assault, part one of this paper provides an overview of specific perpetrator interventions before moving on to consider the different theoretical approaches informing perpetrator intervention programs. Section two of this paper considers the multiplicity of perpetrator interventions by agencies such as police, justice, and corrections; and points of referral to other systems, services and programs such as mental health, drug and alcohol, housing and employment services, in recognition that these services can play a role in assisting men to stop perpetrating violence.

Perpetrator interventions in Australia: Part two – Perpetrator pathways and mapping
This 2015 paper from Australia’s National Research Organization for Women’s Safety provides detailed information on perpetrator pathways and programs in each state and territory in Australia. The purpose the paper is to illustrate the multiplicity of perpetrator interventions beyond men’s behaviour change programs, and specifically, legal interventions by agencies such as police, justice, and corrections. Points of referrals to other systems, services and programs such as mental health, drug and alcohol, housing and employment services are also noted, in recognition that these services can play a role in assisting men to stop perpetrating violence.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization – National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011
This report examines the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence victimization in the United States in 2011 using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey.  Specifically, the report looks at racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; types of perpetrators by type of violence; age at first victimization; and the range of negative impacts on victims of intimate partner violence.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011.  Surveillance Summaries
Published in September 2014, this report describes the most recent U.S. data on sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization and the characteristics of victimization. The report summarizes the second year of data collection from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a national random-digit-dial telephone (landline and cellular) survey of the non-institutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years.  The lifetime prevalence rates and the occurrence over the past 12 months are presented for each form of surveyed violence.  Limitations of the survey and recommendations suggested by the findings are presented.

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Other Lifetime Trauma among Women Seen in Mental Health Settings
This 2011 document provides a brief review of the available research documenting the prevalence of lifetime abuse among women receiving mental health services.

Provincial Survey of Attitudes Towards Violence and Abuse – Newfoundland and Labrador Statistics Agency (2010)
The Provincial Survey of Attitudes Towards Violence and Abuse was conducted by the Newfoundland and Labrador Statistics Agency within 10 Violence Prevention Initiative regions throughout the province.  The survey was administered by telephone interviews and supplemented by mail out surveys.  This report describes the procedures involved with conducting the survey and highlights the survey results.  Results of the survey are presented based on sex of the respondents (male or female) and based on region.

Real Tools: Responding to Multi-Abuse Trauma - A Tool Kit to Help Advocates and Community Partners Better Serve People with Multiple Issues
This 2011 toolkit focuses on survivors of multi-abuse trauma - those who are affected by multiple issues that negatively affect safety, health, or well-being. A primary focus of the toolkit is on how on many survivors of domestic violence experience alcohol and drug dependence, complex trauma, homelessness, and other hardships.

Reducing Barriers to Support for Women Fleeing Violence: A Toolkit for Supporting Women with Varying Levels of Mental Wellness and Substance Use
The B.C. Society of Transition Houses developed a toolkit in order to provide staff in Transition Housing programs, and other service providers, effective tools to support women who have varying levels of mental wellness and/or substance use and are fleeing violence.  The toolkit provides promising approaches that are respectful and meaningful for women who have experienced violence.  The toolkit contains four sections: 1) an overview of the toolkit; 2) background information about the relationship between mental wellness, substance use, and violence against women including why it is important to provide services to women who experience these issues; 3) promising principles which guide the practices; and 4) discussion and examples of how the principles may be applied as promising practices.

Report on Violence against Women, Mental Health and Substance Use
This 2011 report is the summary of a review conducted for the Canadian Women’s Foundation to enhance the grant making, analyze emerging trends, and understand the current philanthropic environment of services for women who have experienced violence and who have mental health and substance use concerns. The review involved consultations with women with lived experience, service providers and representatives from various ministries across Canada through email and via phone. A total of 10 people were interviewed via phone, another 20 responded to questions via email and many more contacted us with direction on who to contact and other useful information for the review. In addition to these interviews, we reviewed literature in Canada and Internationally for current knowledge around and promising practices for supporting women impacted by these intersecting issues.

Reproductive and Sexual Coercion: A Toolkit for Sexual and Domestic Violence Advocates
This 2015 toolkit helps with screening for reproductive and sexual coercion within the context of intimate partner violence. It includes tips for strengthening partnerships with local health providers to respond to the related healthcare needs of survivors.

Researching Violence Against Women – A Practical guide for Researchers and Activists
The World Health Organization and PATH developed a manual in response to the growing need to improve the quality, quantity, and comparability of international data on physical and sexual abuse.  Information obtained from the collective experiences and insights from individuals, particularly members of the International Research network on Violence Against Women (IRNVAW), helped to address the methodological and ethical challenges of conducting research on violence against women and describe innovative techniques that have been used to address these challenges.  The manual focuses on violence against women by their intimate partners.  Topics include: violence against women as a health and development issue; ethical considerations for researching violence against women; developing a research strategy; quantitative approaches to research; qualitative approaches to research; the challenge of defining and measuring violence in quantitative research; developing a sampling strategy; tools for collecting quantitative data; tools for collecting qualitative data; building your research team; in the field; analyzing quantitative data; analyzing qualitative data; and from research to action.

Responding to Domestic Violence in Clinical Settings
Created by Women's College Hospital, this scenario-based, interactive, e-learning platform is suitable for training a variety of health care providers including Emergency Department personnel, obstetricians, family physicians, medical and nursing students.  Upon completion of the training modules, learners will have more knowledge about domestic violence and its health impacts. They will also know more about how to support women who are experiencing or are at risk of abuse.

Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines
World Health Organization (2013)
This document provides evidence-based guidelines for health-care providers on the appropriate responses, including clinical interventions and emotional support, to women experiencing intimate partner violence and sexual violence.

Risk Assessment E-Learning
Online training developed by the Ontario Association of Interval and Transition Houses. The curriculum consists of four modules: Feminist Analysis of Risk and Risk Assessment; Justice System Perspective of Risk Assessment Tools; Risk Assessment in Partnership with Women; and Safety and Advocacy Plans.

Risk of Future Harm: Family Violence and Information Sharing Between Family and Criminal Courts
This 2016 research report reviews the issues relating to family violence and multiple court proceedings, the relevance of Canadian access to justice reports, specific British Columbia responses to the National Action Committee reports, and risk assessment/the relevance of information about risk.

Safety Planning: A Guide for Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Individuals who are experiencing intimate partner violence
This 2013 was developed by FORGE: Transgender Aging Network for trans people, friends/peers, and professionals to help provide safety options for a transgender person who is living in, or planning to leave, an abusive relationship.  Topics include the purpose of safety planning; what is intimate partner violence; how often does intimate partner violence occur; can abusers change; what is a safety plan; laying the groundwork; staying safe at home; emergency safety bag; financial planning; safe havens; safety in your new place; safety on the job and in public; orders of protection; protecting children and pets; and emotional support.

Safety Planning Across Culture & Community: A Guide for Front Line Violence Against Women Responders
This guide was developed to help professionals who support survivors of woman abuse broaden their approach to safety planning by including more specific factors and considerations relevant to women with differing social locations.  The guide outlines: 1) general risk identification and safety planning with women who are victims of violence in an intimate relationship; 2) risk identification with women across culture; immigrant and refugee women; older women; sex workers; younger women; women with disabilities; lesbian, bisexual, and queer women; and trans people; and 3) resources available to survivors of woman abuse.  The guide was created by the Community Coordination for Women’s Safety and the Ending Violence Association of BC.

Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings
This 2015 review assesses the effectiveness of screening for IPV conducted within healthcare settings on identification, referral, re-exposure to violence, and health outcomes for women, and to determine if screening causes any harm. The evidence shows that screening increases the identification of women experiencing IPV in healthcare settings. Overall, however, rates were low relative to best estimates of prevalence of IPV in women seeking healthcare. Pregnant women in antenatal settings maybe more likely to disclose IPV when screened, however, rigorous research is needed to confirm this. There was no evidence of an effect for other outcomes (referral, re-exposure to violence, health measures, harm arising from screening). Thus, while screening increases identification, there is insufficient evidence to justify screening in healthcare settings. Furthermore, there remains a need for studies comparing universal screening to case-finding (with or without advocacy or therapeutic interventions) for women's long-term wellbeing in order to inform IPV identification policies in healthcare settings. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

SHE Framework: Safety and Health Enhancement for Women Experiencing Abuse – A Toolkit for Health Care Providers and Planners
BC Women’s Hosptial & Health Centre developed the Safety and Health Enhancement (SHE) Framework for women experiencing abuse.  The SHE Framework provides guidance for health care providers, planners, policy makers, researchers, and community partners in assessing and responding to violence against women.  The SHE Framework is comprised of three parts: two models, an evidence paper, and a toolkit.  The two models discussed in the framework are the Compounding Harms Model which describes the potential harms experienced by women within the context of health and health care, beginning with the violence which is intensified by interactions with the health care system; and the Safety and Health Enhancement Model which illustrates safety measures that reduce the harms and health impacts of violence on women.  The SHE evidence paper combines evidence-based research and survivors’ accounts of violence and their experiences within the health care system and provides the foundation for a safety and risk assessment.  Finally, the SHE toolkit is a practical tool designed to guide a team of practitioners, planners, and community partners through a process of identifying compounding harms and safety and health enhancement measures in a particular area of health care.

Shaping a Culture of Respect in our Schools – Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships
In 2008, the Safe Schools Action Team submitted the report, “Shaping a Culture of Respect in our Schools – Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships” which focuses on providing recommendations to prevent and address gender-based violence, homophobia, sexual harassment, and inappropriate sexual behaviour in schools and remove barriers to reporting this violence.  Key findings and recommendations are provided under the following topics: curriculum; effective partnerships with community agencies and organizations; prevention, awareness raising, and intervention; response and supports; reporting; local police/school board protocols; student leadership; parent/family engagement; training; and evaluation and accountability.

Shelter Voices – A day in the life of Canada’s shelters for abused women and their children
The Ontario Association of Interval and Transition Houses conducted the first pan Canadian annual survey that describes a typical day for women’s shelters and transition houses across the country.  Workers from 242 shelters responded to the survey.  On one day, 242 shelters in Canada helped 4,178 women and 2,490 children; however on this same day, 286 women and 205 children could not be accommodated.  Major challenges and suggestions for improvement were highlighted.

Stepping Up - developing promising practices in art-based programming to address issues of violence and community safety for trans, lesbian and bisexual newcomer, immigrant and refugee women tool kit (Part 1 & 2)
In 2010, the Access Alliance Multicultural Health and Community Services developed a promising practices toolkit to guide organizations and service providers in implementing expressive arts groups which contribute to violence prevention/safety promotion programming with trans and LGBQ newcomer women.  The promising practices within this toolkit stem from the Stepping Up project that was comprised of two pilot expressive arts groups: 1) a group for trans-identified newcomer women of any sexual identity; and 2) a group for cis-gender-identified newcomer women who also identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, or questioning.  The toolkit is based on certain themes and issues that were identified within the course of the Stepping Up project such as addressing issues of violence and community safety with Trans and LGBQ newcomer women; identifying and creating safe spaces; capacity building; and future opportunities.

Stopping Violence Against Women Before It Happens: A Practical Toolkit for Communities
The National Rural Women’s Network in Australia developed a toolkit to help rural communities implement primary prevention strategies within the focus of the National Plan to Reduce Violence Against Women and their Children.  There are three parts to the toolkit: 1) an overview of the definitions, prevalence and causes of violence against women and the specific issues relating to rural communities; 2) a review of some common primary prevention approaches to violence against women including case studies of activities that can be replicated or adapted; and 3) a five simple step-by-step guide to getting started and taking action to prevent violence against women in your community.

Supporting Northern Women – A Northwest Territories Family Violence Shelter Worker Training Program
This training curriculum was developed by Northwest Territories (NWT) Health and Social Services in order to help family violence shelter workers in NWT support families experiencing violence.  There are nine modules contained in the curriculum: 1) understanding family violence; 2) working in a shelter; 3) the role of the shelter worker; 4) legislation; 5) helping skills; 6) crisis and trauma; 7) clients and their changing needs; 8) specific populations; and 9) community outreach.  Each module also contains a list of resources.

Survivor Voices – Gaining Insight from Women of Experience
This report summarizes research conducted by the Ottawa Coalition to End Violence Against Women (OCTEVAW) that looked to understand the ways in which survivors of violence and abuse want to engage in their communities.  In this pilot study, women survivors of violence and abuse shared their voices within facilitated focus groups.  Prominent themes identified were empowerment, education and awareness, validation, family, resilience, healing, safety and support.  Recommendations aimed at OCTEVAW and other agencies and organizations that serve women survivors were provided.

Survivor Voices Inclusion Project
Ontario Association of Interval and Transition Houses (2011)
The Survivor Voices Inclusion Project (SVIP), funded by Status of Women Canada in 2011, was developed to discover creative and meaningful ways of engaging women survivors in the work of shelter and second stage homes designed to help them. To date, the project’s team has travelled to 15 communities across the province.In each community, survivors, staff and Board members from shelters, second stage housing, and allied organizations, come together to explore survivor inclusion, barriers, and how to creatively work together to find solutions.

Survivor Voices Inclusion Project: Creating Meaningful Survivor Engagement (2013)
The Survivor Voices Inclusion Project (SVIP) is a tool for agencies and services to meaningfully engage with women survivors of abuse and violence with the focus of ending violence against women.  Survivors, staff at women’s service agencies, and community partners from 20 different communities were consulted on what meaningful survivor engagement looks like, how to make ideas of inclusion with survivors a reality, what the barriers are to survivor engagement, and how to overcome these barriers.  This report summarizes the responses.

Taking an Intersectional Approach: How we can Improve Services for Newcomers Experiencing Violence
T Sri Bhaggiyadatta. Springtide Resources (2012)
This summary report provides the key findings from interviews, focus groups, and survey responses of 144 service providers who support women who have experienced violence and non-status people, refugees, immigrants, and newcomers (NSRIN). The findings illustrated that the NSRIN community may experience violence and respond to violence differently due to community factors, family influence, fear of deportation, mistrust of government or police, or a lack of understanding of immigration laws. Furthermore, NSRIN women often experience multiple barriers to accessing services (e.g., fear of deportation; services not culturally relevant). This report summarizes these issues and provides recommendations to help ensure that support services take an intersectional approach when helping NSRIN women experiencing violence.

The Case for a National Action Plan on Violence Against Women (2013)
In 2012, the Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses initiated the Mapping VAW Policy and Opportunities Project (MVP) with the goal of developing a comprehensive map of existing national, provincial, and territorial policies, action plans, strategies, and legislation that would be impacted by, or could be used as the basis for, the development of national legislation on violence against women in Canada.  This report outlines the Mapping project and key findings and conclusions.

The Facts on Adolescent Pregnancy, Reproductive Risk and Exposure to Dating and Family Violence
This 2010 fact sheet outlines ways that intimate partner violence affects women’s reproductive health and impacts risky sexual behaviors.

The Intersection of Domestic and Sexual Violence: A Review of the Literature
This 2012 report published by the Association of Alberta Sexual Assault Services reviews the intersection between domestic and sexual violence as well as the area of uniqueness and needed specialization of sexual violence. Part I discusses domestic and sexual violence literature published since 2006 and Part II reviews seven key themes related to the intersection of domestic and sexual violence. Part III includes four recommendations to support the Association of Alberta Sexual Assault Services (AASAS) vision of an Alberta free from sexual assault and sexual abuse.

The Moderating Role of Attachment on the Relationship Between History of Trauma and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization.
This 2015 study hypothesized that attachment-based anxiety moderated the relationship between trauma history and IPV revictimization in a sample of women who had reported IPV victimization 1 year earlier. Results confirmed the following hypotheses: When attachment-based anxiety was high, trauma history was positively associated with IPV victimization and use of violence. When attachment-based anxiety was low, trauma history was no longer positively associated with IPV victimization or use of violence. Secure attachments may protect female victims of IPV from the impact of trauma. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

The Study of Violence Against Women in Perth and Huron Counties – Research Report
This 2013 report summarizes research results from a study commissioned by the Social Research and Planning Council Perth Huron that analyzed violence against women in Perth and Huron Counties and the current service system.  The study utilized surveys, focus groups, and interviews to look at the prevalence and impact of violence against women in Perth and Huron Counties; existing services; gaps and barriers; and good practices and recommendations.

Thinking about Homicide Risk: A Practice Framework for Counselling
This paper was developed by Australia’s National Research Organization for Women’s Safety to Reduce Violence Against Women and Children, formally known as the Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse, to help counsellors assess and respond to the risk of lethality in the context of domestic violence with their clients.  The paper proposes a framework comprised of four main system domains of which counsellors need to address:  1) the client system – gathering information about the woman, her partner, any children or other family members, extended relationships and the community and culture in which the family is involved and conducting risk assessment; 2) the therapeutic relationship – developing a trusting and safe therapeutic relationship with the client and continue ongoing assessment; 3) the organizational context – within this domain the organization ensures that it has done all that it can in order to prevent a domestic homicide (e.g., develop safety plans; provide training, staff development, supervision and consultation; develop policies and procedures that outlines the roles and responsibilities of staff and managers in identifying and preventing domestic violence); and 4) the system of services – developing relationships with the wider system of services that are able to provide clients and their families with support and safety (e.g., child protection services).

Training and Certification for Domestic Violence Service Providers: The Need for a National Standard Curriculum and Training Approach.
This 2014 paper reviews current approaches to training and the ability of such methods to adequately prepare providers. There are no national standards for providers at any level from DV advocates to batterer interventionists, to clinicians with the required hours of training in most states at an alarmingly low level. Few states require cross training for those working as victim advocates or batterer interventionists. The systems that currently provide segregated and limited training create silos of service that are less effective. A proposed set of standards and training guidelines are proposed for DV advocates, batterer interventionists, and clinicians along with a discussion of the implications of such standards for the field. This is an abstract only. You can access the full article through the library, society membership, or by online purchase.

Training for survivors, frontline workers and volunteers
In this short video, Nneka MacGregor, the Executive Director of WomenatthecentrE , discusses the multiple training initiatives to help support survivors of gendered violence.  The initiatives are aimed at survivors, frontline workers and volunteers with a focus on developing the capacity and abilities of survivors to engage in advocacy and use their lived experience to inform policy and practice.

Transforming our Communities: Report from the Domestic Violence Advisory Council for the Minister Responsible for Women’s Issues (2009)
In 2007, the Minister Responsible for Women’s Issues established the Ontario Domestic Violence Advisory Council (DVAC).  The purpose of the DVAC is to provide recommendations to improve services and supports for abused women and their children.  This 2009 report outlines recommendations made by the DVAC under the following five key areas: access and equity; the legal response; education and training; threat assessment and risk management; and child welfare.

Transition Homes in Canada: National, Provincial and Territorial Fact Sheets 2009/2010
Adam Cotter & Marta Burczycka (2011)
As part of the Federal Family Violence Initiative, Statistics Canada conducts the Transition Home Survey (THS) every two years. The THS gathers information from all residential facilities in Canada that offer services for abused women seeking shelter in order to measure the availability and use of such facilities and to better understand the needs of the clientele they are serving. In 2009/2010, 593 shelters were contacted. Respondents were asked to supply information on the characteristics of the facilities (e.g. bed capacity, number of annual admissions) and the types of services provided during the previous 12 months (April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010). Additionally, respondents were asked to provide information on the women and children residing in the shelter on snapshot day (April 15, 2010).

Trauma-informed Care: Best practices and protocols for Ohio's Domestic Violence  Programs
Ohio Domestic Violence Network.
This document has been developed to assist domestic violence programs to become more trauma-informed when providing services to victims of domestic violence.

Traumatic Brain Injury As a Result of Domestic Violence: Information, Screening and Model Practices: Trainer's Manual
The materials in this 2011 toolkit facilitate ways to better equip domestic violence program staff to recognize, understand and respond more effectively to the specific needs of those living with TBI as a result of domestic violence.

Understanding the Role of Gender Inequality in Men’s Violence against Women: A Conceptual Model
This 2016 conceptual model was designed by Women’s Health West (Australia) as a training resource for that can be used to explore the role of gender inequality in men’s violence against women.

Violence against Women: A Toolkit for Community Engagement (2013)
This toolkit from the Canadian Council of Muslim Women was developed to provide support in initiating conversations around violence against Muslim women and assist in developing strategies for community response to this violence.  The kit includes a community workshop presentation; the Muslim wheel of domestic violence; case studies; and fact sheets.  The focus of the fact sheets are on four forms of violence against Muslim women: woman abuse, femicide, forced marriage, and female genital mutiliation.  The toolkit is also available in French.

Violence Against Women: an EU-wide Survey
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) conducted the first survey on the extent, nature and consequences of violence against women in all 28 Member States of the European Union (EU).  A total of 42,000 women were surveyed about their experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence including incidents of woman abuse, stalking, sexual harassment, violence in childhood, and technology-related violence.  The survey results indicate that the issue of violence against women needs to be addressed and people must advocate for change.

Violence Against Women: Health and Justice for Canadian Muslim Women
This resource from the Canadian Council of Muslim Women focuses on four forms of violence against Muslim women: woman abuse, femicide, forced marriage, and female genital mutilation within an international and Canadian context.  It also proposes strategies to mitigate these forms of violence including educating women about their legal rights and appealing to religion, tradition, and/or national culture to change communities in which this type of violence is normalized. This document is also provided in French.

Violence Against Women in Relationships – Victim Service Worker Handbook
This guide, released by the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General in British Columbia in 2006,  was developed to help people who work with women who are victims/survivors of violence in their intimate relationships provide information, respectful treatment, support throughout the justice system process, and a coordinated approach that addresses all needs.  The handbook is divided into eight sections: 1) exploring the nature, dynamics, social context, extent, and impact of violence against women in relationships; 2) discussing the needs of diverse communities in seeking support; 3) describing the full range of responses to violence against women in relationships, including legislation, policy, services, and community coordination; 4) providing an introduction to and overview of the work of victim services, including the role of the victim service worker and principles for effective woman-centred service; 5) focusing on a woman’s immediate safety needs; including the role of victim services and the police; 6) addressing strategies to help meet a woman’s needs for ongoing safety and security, including risk assessment and safety planning, protection orders, and other protective strategies; 7) focusing on assisting the woman through the justice system from initial report to police through to post-sentencing issues, compensation, and family justice issues; and 8) listing resources for information, practical assistance, and support.

Violence During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period
This 2012 applied research paper provides research findings concerning violence against pregnant and postpartum women, discusses some of the strengths and limitations of these studies, and concludes with comments concerning the implications of this work for practice and research.

Violent Victimization of Aboriginal Women in the Canadian Provinces, 2009
Shannon Brennan (2011)
This report examines Aboriginal women’s experiences of violent victimization using self-reported data from the General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization from 2009. Data from 10 provinces were reviewed. The report summarizes the prevalence and nature of violence against Aboriginal women and discusses the impact of violence, the use of support services, and whether or not victims reported the violence to police. Reports of Aboriginal women’s perceptions of their personal safety and the criminal justice system are summarized.

What Their Stories Tell Us: Research Findings From the Sisters in Spirit Initiative
Native Women’s Association of Canada (2010)
In 2005, the Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) received funding from the Status of Women Canada to create the Sisters in Spirit Initiative. The purpose of the Sisters in Spirit Initiative was to identify the number of Aboriginal women and girls who had gone missing or who had been killed; understand the root causes, circumstances and trends around this violence; and address why this violence occurred without any support or intervention from the Canadian justice system. As of March 31, 2010, the Sisters in Spirit Initiative identified 582 cases of missing or murdered Aboriginal women and girls. The research findings attributed the impact of colonization, state policies, and intergenerational trauma to the violence experienced by Aboriginal women and girls and highlighted the need for policy, programs and services to address these issues in order to prevent future violence.

Woman Abuse in the Perinatal Period Guidelines for Care Providers
This guide developed by the Perinatal Partnership Program of Eastern and Southeastern Ontario outlines the role of health care providers in assisting pregnant women experiencing abuse.  The guide describes woman abuse; the prevalence rates of woman abuse and abuse during pregnancy; the dynamics of abuse; the health impacts; the role of the legal system; and the role of health care providers.  Specific attention is paid to health care providers' role in screening, documentation, and prevention.

Women and the Criminal Justice System
Tina Hotton Mahony (2011)
This report summarizes statistics from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization and the 2009 Uniform Crime Reporting Incident-Based Survey on the prevalence and characteristics of female victimization and female criminality in Canada. Trends regarding female perpetrators in the criminal justice system are presented.

Women in Politics: 2014
The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women published a global map that reflects the percentage of women in parliaments in various countries across the world based on data from January 1, 2014.

Working with Victims with Brain Injuries in Domestic Violence Shelters
This 2012 resource provides guidelines for assisting victims of domestic violence who have sustained brain injuries while they are staying in a shelter.

WorkSafeBC – Domestic Violence in the Workplace
WorkSafeBC provides online resources regarding domestic violence in the workplace.  Resources include details of regulatory requirements that relate to domestic violence in the workplace; a personal and tragic story of what can happen if domestic violence enters your workplace (video); animated clips on how to talk to an employee who might be experiencing domestic violence and how to develop a personal safety plan for time at work; handbooks for employers on addressing domestic violence in the workplace; fact sheets; awareness materials; and other resources.