Partner Violence in Rainbow Communities

Partner violence in rainbow communities is an under-researched and under-resourced social and health concern.  Here you will find statistics on incidence and prevalence, definitions, and intervention/prevention initiatives.  Also available are reports on the consequences of partner violence in rainbow communities expressed through the lived experience of survivors, as well as qualitative and quantitative research findings.  Resources for services providing supports to victim/survivors or public education/social marketing campaigns are also included.

2Spirited People of the First Nations
2 Spirited People of the First Nations (2 Spirits) is a non-profit social service organization that first began in 1989.  The vision of 2 Spirits is to create a space where Aboriginal 2-Spirited people can grow and come together as a community, fostering a positive image, honoring the past, and building a future in order to bridge the gap between 2-spirited lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered communities, and their Aboriginal identity.  2 Spirits provides several services such as social, cultural and recreational activities; counselling and advocacy; client support programs; and HIV/AIDS education, outreach and prevention.

Aboriginal Two Spirit Women’s Domestic Violence Fact Sheet
The 2Spirited People of the First Nations developed an Aboriginal Two Spirit Women’s Domestic Violence Fact Sheet that describes the different types of abuse (physical; spiritual; emotional; and mental); the consequences of abuse; statistics; what service providers need to do; what Elders need to do; and community resources.

Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships Information & Resources – Creating Strong & Safe LGBT Communities
This information pamphlet, developed by Ending Violence Association of BC, provides information on abuse in same-sex relationships.  The pamphlet describes an abusive intimate relationships and what one can do if they think they are being abused or abusive in their relationship.  Local resources are also provided.

An Ally’s Guide to Terminology – Talking About LGBT People & Equality
This guide, developed by GLAAD, helps new allies who want to support LGBT Americans navigate through an array of confusing terminology and language.  The guide offers an overview of essential vocabulary, terms to avoid and a few key messages for talking about various issues.

Another Closet
Another Closet is a website developed by the LGBTIQ Domestic Violence Interagency in Sydney, Australia.  The LGBTIQ Domestic Violence Interagency is comprised of several representatives from many fields of expertise working to provide services to respond to domestic violence with the goal of creating awareness of domestic violence in LGBTIQ relationships and to provide adequate services for people experiencing this violence.  The website provides a wide array of resources and information for members of the LGBTIQ experiencing domestic violence.  The website includes resources on safety planning, how to give and receive support, where to find help, personal stories of domestic violence in same-sex relationships, and toolkits for victims and their families.  The website also provides information on the StandUP Against Domestic Violence campaign. 

Another Closet: Domestic Violence in Same-Sex Relationships
This booklet was developed in 2009 by the Same-Sex Domestic Violence Interagency (SSDVI) in Australia for people in same-sex relationships who are, or may be, experiencing domestic violence.  Chapters include: information about same-sex domestic violence; what to do if you are experiencing domestic violence; recovering from domestic violence; how friends or family can support someone experiencing domestic violence; and referral information and other resources.

Another Closet – Stand Up!
The Stand Up! public education campaign was developed by Another Closet in Australia.  The purpose of the campaign is to educate people on how to give support to LGBTI community members experiencing domestic and family violence.  The campaign contains information, resources, posters and postcards.

Asking the right questions 2. : Talking about sexual orientation and gender identity in mental health, counselling, and addiction settings
This manual was developed for all therapists, counsellors, clinicians, nurses and doctors assessing or treating clients who have substance use and/or mental health concerns that may be related to sexual orientation and/or gender identity issues.  The manual helps clinicians create an environment where lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, transsexual, two-spirit, intersex, and queer (LGBTTTIQ) clients feel comfortable identifying themselves as such so that a clinician can best assess the specific needs of the client; engage these clients in a positive treatment process; develop specifically tailored treatment plans; and make appropriate referrals.  

Best Practices in Policing and LGBTQ Communities in Ontario
This 2013 report from the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police’s Diversity Committee outlines best practices on policing and LGBTQ communities in order to assist police services to develop inclusive workplaces for LGBTQ police personnel and develop and maintain relationships with members of the LGBTQ communities.  The report provides definitions/terminology and outlines different procedures and practices for policing certain situations that may occur within the LGBTQ communities such as hate crimes; intimate partner violence; sexual assault; and sex work.

Building Pride: A resource for LGBT inclusion in the workplace
Building Pride is a resource that provides materials and information on how to create LGBT-inclusive workplaces in Ontario.  Building Pride provides best practices, personal stories of change, a list of available inclusive jobs, and other resources.  A resource offered is the Employment Toolkit developed by Pride At Work.  The purpose of the toolkit is to help employers and employees make the workplace more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans-identified Canadians through dialogue, education and leadership.   

Community Action Toolkit for Addressing IPV Against Transgender People – US National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence Against Women
This toolkit was designed by the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs in partnership with GLAAD, the National Black Justice Coalition, National Center for Transgender Equality, Trans People of Color Coalition, and National Gay and Lesbian Task force, to provide communities with strategies to create dialogue on transgender intimate partner violence, ways to support survivors, and identify resources.  Topics include: what is intimate partner violence (IPV); LGBTQ IPV invisibility; barriers for LGBTQ communities; impact of IPV on transgender communities; the power and control wheel; tactics specific to transgender IPV; public awareness campaigns; and outreach.

Culturally Competent Service Provision to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Survivors of Sexual Violence
This 2009 review article provides an overview of existing research on survivors of sexual violence who identify as LGBT. It outlines the importance of including LGBT survivors in anti-violence work as well as the types and incidence of LGBT sexual violence. Recommendations for culturally competent practice are also discussed.

David Kelley Services 
The David Kelley Lesbian, Gay, Bi, Trans, Queer Counselling program, located in Toronto,  provides a range of counselling services to people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans or queer.  Partner Assault Response Services are provided for court and probation-mandated individuals charged with assault to a same-sex partner. 

Deaf Queer Women Against Violence Program
The Ontario Rainbow Alliance of the Deaf, in collaboration with Springtide Resources, developed the first Canadian American Sign language (ASL) and captioned DVD about healthy relationships and violence and harassment experienced by Deaf Queer women.  The DVD includes a list of relevant terminology; a list of services available; tips on self advocacy; and guidelines for hearing and Deaf agencies to enhance their capacity to provide effective services when working with Deaf queer women. 

Diversity Our Strength – LGBT Tool Kit for Creating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Culturally Competent Care at Toronto Long-Term Care Homes and Services
This 2008 toolkit was developed by Toronto Long-Term Care Homes and Services to assist in establishing cultural competencies in providing care and services for elder LBGT residents, partners and their friends, while also creating a welcoming environment for staff, volunteers, and the local community.  Some of the topics discussed in the kit include creating an LBGT welcoming environment; privacy and confidentiality issues; staff education; resident care and planning; and community engagement.

Domestic Violence in Alberta’s Gender and Sexually Diverse Communities: Towards a Framework for Prevention
This 2014 report by Shift: The Project to End Domestic Violence provides an overview of intimate partner violence (IPV) in rainbow communities. Focusing on Alberta and Canada, the IPV risk factors of heteronormativity, early stigma and homophobic harassment, and social exclusion and isolation are discussed. The report also reviews the barriers experienced by rainbow communities in accessing services. Prevention strategies and promising practices for decreasing IPV and providing appropriate services are proposed, along with specific recommendations for government action.

Domestic Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities - Trainers Manual
This training manual was developed by the New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence to assist practitioners in recognizing domestic violence in LGBT relationships; understanding how gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, heterosexism, homophobia and transphobia can be used as weapons of control; recognizing the risks to LGBT victims, particularly with victims of colour; professionally facilitating disclosures of abuse by LGBT clients; and providing appropriate referrals, information, and resources.  There are six modules within the training manual:  1) introduction and curriculum overview; 2) examining assumptions which includes defining terms and examining privilege; 3) introduction to LGBT domestic violence such as defining and understanding domestic violence within the LGBT communities; 4) myths and realities of domestic violence within the LGBT communities; 5) identifying domestic violence in LGBT relationships; and 6) attending to victim safety.  The curriculum also includes a participant’s manual: Domestic Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities - Participants Manual

E-Newsletter Issue 12: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Rainbow Communities
Issue 12 of the Learning Network Newsletter focuses on intimate partner violence (IPV) in LGBT communities. In this issue we explore the benefits of an intersectional approach for understanding IPV in LGBT relationships and how the experiences of LGBT survivors may differ from other IPV survivors.  Learn about barriers to services for LGBT survivors and their abusive partners, as well as what practice competencies help to reduce barriers.  The Learning Network team has included descriptions of and links to LGBT organizations/networks and a range of resources (e.g. for allies, for trainers, for Deaf Queer Womyn, for immigrants and refugees, for youth).
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Egale
Egale Canada Human Rights Trust (Egale) is a national charity in Canada that promotes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans human rights through research, education and community engagement.  Egale’s mission is to advance human rights based on sexual orientation and gender identity through research, education and community engagement.  The website contains information and resources on national and community LGBTQ events; creating safer and more inclusive schools across Canada; homelessness and suicidality among LGBTQ2S youth; discrimination and hate crimes; trans rights; creating equal families (e.g., same-sex marriage; blood and organ donation; adoption; immigration); and international equality initiatives.

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care – Barriers to well-being for Aboriginal gender-diverse people – results from the Trans PULSE Project in Ontario Canada (2013)
This study examined the barriers to well-being for trans people who identified as First Nations, Métis, or Inuit.  The majority of participants experienced violence due to being trans and had considered suicide.  Many reported high levels of poverty, homelessness or underhousing, having to move due to being trans, and at least one past-year unmet health care need.  Almost half of the respondents reported practicing Aboriginal spirituality and approximately one-fifth of the respondents had seen an Aboriginal Elder for mental health support.

Gay men and intimate partner violence: A gender analysis
This 2014 article examines intersections of sexuality and gender in gay men’s experiences of intimate partner violence.

Guide for Transformative Prevention Programming – Sexual Violence & Individuals Who Identify as LGBTQ
This 2012 guide, developed by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center and Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, provides information to state and community-based sexual violence prevention educators and practitioners on preventing sexual violence against individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ).  Topics include discrimination against people who identify as LGBTQ; future of LGBTQ sexual violence prevention; focusing efforts; and prevention efforts that address the needs of LGBTQ communities.

Healthy Relationships for Lesbians Information & Resources - Creating Strong & Safe LGBT Communities
This information pamphlet, developed by Ending Violence Association of BC, describes the unique challenges women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, Two-Sprit, and/or queer, face when creating and sustaining healthy, satisfying intimate relationships.  The pamphlet provides tips for resolving conflicts and how to obtain a healthy relationship.

Hear IT! Stop It! Education Toolkit
The Hear It! Stop It! Campaign was developed by the 519 Church Street Community Centre.  The purpose of the campaign is to create space for change as part of our drive to challenge homophobic and transphobic language and foster LGBTQ inclusive environments.  The campaign provides organizations, LGBTQ community members and their allies with resources to make workplaces, services and community environments welcoming, safe and inclusive.  A major component of the campaign is bystanders speaking up against homophobic or transphobic language and environments.  The toolkit includes posters and pledge cards in both English and French.

Intimate Partner Violence in Rainbow Communities: A Discussion Paper Informed by the Learning Network Knowledge Exchange (November 2014)
This discussion paper is informed by the Learning Network Knowledge Exchange on IPV in LGBT communities held in London, Ontario in November 2014.  It contains comments from participants, information from the literature on IPV in LGBT communities, discussions on the experiences of IPV, consequences of IPV and barriers to understanding, disclosing and seeking help, and considerations for continuing to move forward. We’ve included a glossary and links to helpful resources. After you have read the paper we hope you will join the discussion (Twitter:@learntoendabuse | #RainbowKE) or send us your thoughts about the paper and possible next steps for responding to and preventing IPV (vawln@uwo.ca).
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It Takes A Village, People!  Advocacy, Friends and Family, & LGBT Survivors of Abuse
The Northwest Network of Bi, Trans, Lesbian, and Gay Survivors of Abuse in Seattle, WA put out this toolkit in 2013 to help advocates, friends, and family provide support and safety for LGBT survivors of intimate partner violence.  The basic principles used are: keep survivor self-determination in the forefront; safety for everyone involved is important; there are no “one size fits all” answers – evaluate the possible consequences of strategies in specific situations; and know how to respond to homophobia and transphobia.

Janice Ristock’s Keynote at Ending Violence Association of BC’s Annual Training Forum 2012
This keynote addresses intimate partner violence in the LGBTQI2S community looking at qualitative and quantitative research.

Law Enforcement Violence Against Women of Color & Trans People of Color: A Critical Intersection of Gender Violence & State Violence
This training kit was developed by INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence to support advocates, affiliates, and allies in raising awareness and challenging gender-based and state violence against women of colour and trans people of colour.  The kit provides fact sheets, organizing tools, and resources.

Lesbian Gay Bi Trans Youthline 
1-800-268-9688
The Lesbian Gay Bi Trans Youth Line is a toll-free peer support phone line for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, 2-spritied, queer and questioning youth (26 years and younger) in Ontario.  The Youth Line also provides support through online forums and email.  The Youth Line peers offer callers support, information and referrals.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Intimate Partner Violence in 2013 - A Report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP)
The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) collected data regarding intimate partner violence within LGBTQ and HIV-affected relationships from 18 anti-violence programs in 17 states across the U.S.  The report indicates an increase in intimate partner homicides with over three quarters of homicide victims being gay men.  The report also indicates that LGBTQ and HIV-affected survivors of violence rarely go to the police, courts, or shelters for support.

Lesbian, Gay Male, Bisexual and Transgendered Elders: Elder Abuse and Neglect Issues
This brief paper outlines how being a Lesbian, Gay male, or Bisexual elder may impact on the need for adult protective services.  Strategies for adult protective workers are highlighted.

Lesbian Mothers’ Counseling Experiences in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence
This 2012 study by Oswald, Fonseca, and Hardesty examines the counseling experiences of lesbian mothers who are survivors of intimate partner violence. The article reveals when counselors were most helpful (e.g. promoting self-empowerment) and least helpful (e.g. victim-blaming). Implications and recommendations for competent practice are discussed.

LGBTQ Newcomer Settlement Network Toronto
The LGBTQ Settlement Network was developed to support frontline staff in their work with LGBTQ newcomers; act as a community hub for those interested in this work; stimulate dialogue in relation to LGBTQ newcomers and their settlement needs in broader forms; act as a forum to develop partnerships; increase visibility of the network in the larger community as well as in LGBTQ communities; coordinate outreach efforts to LGBTQ newcomers; and act as a catalyst for systemic change.  

Making It Better Today – The Simcoe County LGBT Youth Needs Assessment Report
In 2011, the Lesbian Gay Bi Trans Youth Line partnered with community-based organizations and individuals in Simcoe County to conduct a county-wide needs assessment for LGBT youth.  Between August 2011 and January 2012, a total of 157 LGBT youth, allies, service providers and educators completed online surveys, focus groups and participatory art.  Some of the key findings from the community consultation survey indicated: 83% of community participants stated that they provide a safe space for LGBT youth but only 4% of LGBT youth stated that they access community organizations for support; 58% reported receiving requests for support from LGBT youth but at the time of the survey the only supports available were the Lesbian Gay Bi Trans Youth Line and Gay Straight Alliances (GSAs); and only 41% of community respondents felt they had adequate training on LGBT issues.  Some findings from the LGBT Youth Survey indicated: 47% of youth heard homophobic comments on a daily basis and 32% heard transphobic and other negative gender related comments; 51% of youth dealt with verbal harassment about their LGBT identity; 24% of youth had thoughts of suicide and 33% were dealing with anxiety, depression, or self-harming behaviours; and 75% of youth wanted community-based programs and 70% felt a need for community-based mental health programs.  The assessment also conducted focus groups with LGBT youth. Some themes that emerged from the focus groups included issues around safety, support, barriers and experiences of oppression.  The report outlines 10 action steps to operate on a continuum to recognize the unique needs and capacity of those who are working on behalf of LGBT youth.

Open Minds Open Doors – Transforming Domestic Violence Programs to Include LGBTQ Survivors
This manual was created by The Network/La Red in 2010 to assist organizations in making domestic violence programs more LGBTQ-inclusive.  Chapters include: introduction including choices in language; why become LGBTQ-inclusive; understanding LGBTQ communities; learning about LGBTQ partner abuse; getting started; assessment; LGBTQ education and training; collaboration with LGBTQ and Ally organizations; personnel policies; creating a welcoming environment for LGBTQ survivors; direct service practices (advocacy, legal advocacy, shelter, support group); outreach and media; reflection and feedback; cases studies; and resources.  Each chapter offers ideas for implementation.

PFLAG Canada
PFLAG Canada is a national organization that helps all Canadians with issues of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression.  PFLAG Canada supports, educates and provides resources to all individuals.  PFLAG Canada developed a glossary of terms used within LGBTQ communities.

Positive Spaces Initiative
The Positive Spaces Initiative was developed by the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) to share resources and increase organizational capacity across the sector to more effectively serve LGBTQ newcomers.  Positive Spaces are welcoming environments for LGBTQ+ newcomers to access culturally inclusive services and where service providers can work free from discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression.  The Positive Spaces starter kit was developed to bring greater visibility to the specific needs and experiences of LGBTQ+ newcomers and staff.  The kit is comprised of fact sheets and stories drawn from interviews with LGBTQ+ newcomers, staff and allies.  The kit contains tips for supporting clients, a glossary of terms, understanding human rights, tips and tools for making an agency a positive space, and resources.

Pushed (back) in the Closet – Research Findings on the Safety Needs of LGBTTIQQ2S Women and Trans Communities of Toronto – METRAC (2009)
This report, developed by the Metropolitan Action Committee on Violence Against women and Children (METRAC), summarizes research results from an online survey that assessed the safety needs of LGBTTQQ2S women and trans individuals in Toronto.  The purpose of the research was to gain an understanding of women’s and trans communities’ experience with, and fear of, violence in the City of Toronto and use the information obtained to develop and enhance safety resources for these communities.  The report describes the methodology of the study; respondent demographics; results of the survey regarding public safety concerns and rates of victimization; the impact of violence on members of LGBTTIQQ2S communities; reporting violence; and recommendations for action. 

Rainbow Health Ontario
Rainbow Health Ontario (RHO) works to improve access to services and promote the health of LGBTQ communities in Ontario.  RHO provides training to service providers about LGBTQ health including trans specific training; shares information and resources; encourages, promotes, and shares research; consults on public policy issues; provides consultations to organizations across the province to develop their capacity; and hosts the only national LGBTQ health conference.

Relationship Violence in Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender/Queer [LGBTQ] Communities – Moving Beyond a Gender-Based Framework
This 2005 paper authored by Janice Ristock provides a critical overview of some of the research around what has been done to better understand the contexts, dynamics and impact of relationship violence within LGBTQ communities and identify barriers within support services when responding to this form of violence.  Topics include defining LGBTQ relationship violence; determining the magnitude of LGBTQ partner violence; differing contexts of relationship violence; using a framework of intersectionality; barriers in service; recommendations and guidelines for responding to LGBTQ relationship violence; and innovative approaches.

Safety Planning: A Guide for Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Individuals who are experiencing intimate partner violence
This 2013 guide was developed by FORGE: Transgender Aging Network for trans people, friends/peers, and professionals to help provide safety options for a transgender person who is living in, or planning to leave, an abusive relationship.  Topics include the purpose of safety planning; what is intimate partner violence; how often does intimate partner violence occur; can abusers change; what is a safety plan; laying the groundwork; staying safe at home; emergency safety bag; financial planning; safe havens; safety in your new place; safety on the job and in public; orders of protection; protecting children and pets; and emotional support.

Safety Under the Rainbow
This website was developed by a number of organizations in Calgary, AB to provide resources and information primarily to service providers assisting members of the rainbow community experiencing violence.  The website provides information on resources available in Alberta; definitions and terminology; and safety plans.

Setting the Stage: Strategies for Supporting LGBTIQ Survivors – Connections
Connections is a biannual publication of Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs.  The Winter 2010 issue, Setting the Stage: Strategies for Supporting LGBTIQ Survivors, shares resources developed by LGBTIQ advocates and support agencies on how to work with LGBTIQ survivors of sexual violence.  Topics covered in the issue include definitions and vocabulary; practical tips for working with transgender survivors of sexual violence; Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) protocol for working with LGBTIQ survivors of sexual violence; and facing woman-to-woman sexual violence.

Sexual Violence and Help-Seeking Among LGBQ and Heterosexual College Students
This 2015 study by Richardson, Armstrong, Hines, and Reed examines help-seeking by LGBQ and heterosexual college students who have experienced sexual violence. One key finding from the study is that LGBQ victims are more likely to feel that they would be blamed for the sexual violence they experienced and therefore were less likely to seek help than heterosexual students.

Shaping a Culture of Respect in our Schools – Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships
In 2008, the Safe Schools Action Team submitted the report, Shaping a Culture of Respect in our Schools – Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships which focuses on providing recommendations to prevent and address gender-based violence, homophobia, sexual harassment, and inappropriate sexual behaviour in schools and remove barriers to reporting this violence.  Key findings and recommendations are provided under the following topics: curriculum; effective partnerships with community agencies and organizations; prevention, awareness raising, and intervention; response and supports; reporting; local police/school board protocols; student leadership; parent/family engagement; training; and evaluation and accountability.

Show Me Love DC!
Show Me Love DC! is a public education campaign developed in Washington, D.C.  The campaign is aimed at providing information to all people affected by intimate partner violence in LGBTQ communities.  The goals of the campaign are to: raise awareness of survivors legal rights; provide resources about maintaining healthy and violence-free relationships; engage communities by leading an interactive art-based project and other outreach events; and ensure that the campaign is culturally relevant and accessible.

Standing Together Coming Out For Racial Justice – An Anti-Racist Organizational Development Toolkit for LGBT Equality Groups and Activists
This 2011 toolkit was developed by the Basic Rights Education Fund to share their experience as a LGBT advocacy organization committed to racial justice in order to encourage partners in the LGBT movement to develop an integrated analysis with a commitment to understanding the relationship of LGBT justice to racial and social justice. The toolkit contains training materials and resources with topics around how to stand together; starting the conversation (developing a shared language and analysis); linking the issues between LGBT and racial justice; and moving to action (organizational transformation).

Stepping Up to the Plate: Developing Best-Practices in Arts-Based Programming for Lesbian, Bisexual and Trans Newcomer Immigrant Refugee Women
Access Alliance Multicultural Health and Community Services in Toronto developed a promising practices toolkit for implementing arts-based programming where issues of violence and community safety are explored by lesbian, bisexual and trans newcomer immigrant and refugee women.  The toolkit was developed following a review of existing expressive arts program models; literature review; interviews and focus groups with community members and service providers; and the implementation of two pilot expressive arts groups, one for lesbian and bisexual women and one for trans women.

Supporting Two Spirited Peoples – Discussion Paper (2008) – National Association of Friendship Centres Canada
This 2008 discussion paper from the National Association of Friendship Centres reviews Two Spirited program and service delivery approaches and recommendations for development and implementation in Friendship Centres and other service delivery organizations.  Key findings are highlighted within the following topics: historical status of Two Spirited peoples; current status of Two Spirited peoples; program and service needs; and empowering Friendship Centres and staff.

Tales from another closet – personal stories of domestic violence in same-sex relationships
This document is a collection of personal stories written by gay and lesbian survivors of abuse and violence.  The stories highlight the common experiences as well as the unique experiences of each of the authors.  The collection forms part of ACON’s same-sex domestic violence community awareness campaign.

The 519 Church Street Community Centre
The 519 is a community hub within Toronto’s diverse Church and Wellesley Village.  The mission of the 519 for over 35 years has been to work with neighbor and LGBTQ communities to build healthy, welcoming spaces to meet, participate and celebrate together.  The 519 develops programs and services that address emerging issues and currently has over 80 community-led programs that provide peer support, social, recreational, arts and cultural opportunities in safe 519 public meeting spaces.  Programs and services include AIDS memorial; anti-violence program; anti-poverty and homelessness; children and families; counselling and advice; older LGBT; queer and trans parenting; newcomer and settlement services; trans community services; and community-led programs/groups.

The Lesbian Partner Abuse Scale
This 2002 article by McClennen, Summers, and Daley tests the reliability and validity of the Lesbian Partner Abuse Scale-Revised (LE-PAS-R). The usefulness of the LE-PAS-R as a tool for clinicians to facilitation violence prevention in lesbian relationships is discussed, along with applications for practice.

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey – 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation
The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control in the U.S. put out a 2013 report on national findings of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence based on the sexual orientation of U.S. adults.  The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey is an ongoing, nationally representative survey that collects information about experiences of sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence among English and/or Spanish-speaking women and men aged 18 years or older.  The findings in this report are based on survey data from 2010 and interviews with 16, 507 adults (9,086 women and 7,421 men).  Information presented is based on respondents’ self-reported sexual orientation and lifetime victimization experiences.  Limitations to the report include respondents with a victimization history who did not report their sexual orientation were not included in subgroup analyses; small numbers for particular subgroups limited the ability to report and to detect differences between groups based on sexual orientation; other variables, such as age, race, and income might partially explain the differences found between groups; the possible hesitancy of participants to disclose their sexual orientation based on perceived risk or fear of discrimination may have resulted in the misclassification of sexual orientation for some respondents; and research suggests that there is a degree of fluidity related to self-identified sexual orientation across the lifespan and a respondents current sexual orientation may not represent the sexual orientation of the respondents when the violence actually occurred. 

The Prevalence of Sexual Assault Against People Who Identify as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual in the United States: A Systematic Review
This 2011 article by Rothman, Exner, and Baughman provides a systematic review of 75 studies on sexual assault victimization among people who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Prevalence rates of various forms of sexual assault, including childhood sexual assault, adult sexual assault, intimate partner sexual assault, and hate crime-related sexual assault are reviewed. Implications for practice, policy, and research are also discussed.

Transgender People & Relationship Abuse Information & Resources - Creating Strong & Safe LGBT Communities
This information pamphlet, developed by Ending Violence Association of BC, describes an abusive intimate relationship and gives examples of abuse tactics used against transgender victims by their intimate partners.  The pamphlet also outlines what one can do if they think they are being abused or abusive in their relationship.

Trans PULSE
The Trans PULSE community-based research project investigates the impact of social exclusion and discrimination on the health of Trans people in Ontario, Canada with the goal of changing policies and practices to improve the health of Trans communities.  The website contains resources including the survey; research and study results including videos and presentations; and looking at the data in action.

Tribal Equity Toolkit: Tribal Resolutions and Codes to Support Two Spirit & LGBT Justice in Indian Country
This 2012 guide was developed in collaboration with the Native American Program of Legal Aid Services of Oregon, the Indigenous Ways of Knowing Program at Lewis & Clark College, and the Western States Center to give tribal legislators an overview of legal issues that impact the equal treatment of Two Spirit or LGBT individuals and to provide sample resolution and code language for tribal lawmakers to consider in order to maximize LGBT equality within their communities.  Chapters within the guide are structured around family; employment; housing; education; health care & end of life; and bias-motivated hate crimes.

Why It Matters – Rethinking Victim Assistance for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Victims of Hate Violence & Intimate Partner Violence
This 2010 joint policy report by the National Center of Victims of Crime and the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) highlights important barriers faced by LGBTQ service providers when attempting to address the needs of LGBTQ victims of violence.  These barriers were first identified in two related questionnaires produced in partnership with the National Center for Victims of Crime and the NCAVP to survey community-based organizations and victim assistance providers regarding their work with LGBTQ victims and survivors of violence.  The findings from the questionnaires indicated that LGBTQ victims of crime did not have consistent access to culturally competent services to prevent and address the violence against them.  This report makes recommendations and proposes collaboration between mainstream victim assistance agencies and LGBTQ-specific anti-violence programs to increase the efficacy and equity of services provided to LGBTQ victims. 

Woman to Woman Sexual Violence
This 2009 paper by Gilroy and Carroll provides an overview of woman to woman sexual violence. The history of this type of sexual violence is briefly reviewed followed by recommendations for future research and services.

Women’s Experiences of Male-Perpetrated Sexual Assault by Sexual Orientation
This 2007 study by Long, Ullman, Long, Mason, and Starzynski examines differences in sexual assault experiences among heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women.  Findings indicate that while some similarities exist across all sexual orientations (e.g. attributions of blame), many differences are also reported (e.g. higher PTSD symptomology among bisexual women).